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3 Reasons Not to Delay your IPv6 Deployment

By John Curran, President and CEO, ARIN

Lately there has been some remarkably bad advice circulating that suggests companies would be better off delaying their IPv6 deployment ­– effectively deferring their IPv6 efforts until there’s no other option. Deferring the roll out of IPv6 while the Internet is moving ahead with IPv6 is a flawed strategy with serious impacts to your business. Let’s take a look at three reasons why companies should make their IPv6 websites reachable now versus waiting until later.

Don't Delay

1. The public Internet is moving to IPv6 whether you’re ready for it or not

First, it’s important to remember that it is the public Internet that now is migrating to IPv6, so for most organizations it is not your whole enterprise that is impacted at this point. Unless you’re an Internet service provider, the migration to IPv6 only impacts the public-facing servers (e.g. web servers) that you use to communicate with your customers and business partners. No one is saying that the printer in the copy room needs to find IPv6, or that every desktop needs it – it is the public Internet is moving to IPv6, and this means whether you like it or not, your public servers are going to be reached increasingly via the IPv6 protocol.  This ongoing migration of the public Internet to IPv6 is easy to confirm – just look at deployment of mobile devices in the US, where nearly every leading carrier is using IPv6 to expand their networks. Google indicates that more than 15% of search queries in the US are now coming over IPv6, and this is increasing each week.


2. The costs of moving to IPv6 aren’t as high as you think

The costs of IPv6-enabling your public facing servers are actually are quite modest, and consist primarily of confirming that your external connectivity/ISP has enabled IPv6, and then configuring your existing firewalls, load balancing, and web servers with the additional IPv6 addresses. For many who have third-party hosting of their website, it’s quite possible that the much of work has already been done. The return on investment is quite real, since an increasing number of mobile users have IPv6-based connectivity and see faster performance from IPv6-enabled websites than IPv4-only websites (which must be accessed via dynamic translation.)


3. The longer you wait, the longer your competitors are gaining valuable experience working with IPv6 that you aren’t

Finally, when deciding whether putting off your IPv6 efforts make sense, it’s probably best to think about what happens at the end of that process. By deferring your experience with IPv6, you’re effectively putting your enterprise behind the technology curve compared to the marketplace and your competitors. At some point you will need to expend more resources at a faster rate to build the skills and competency needed to catch up. This is poor situation to put your technology team in, and may even surprise your financial folks with the sudden need to invest in new, more capable technology that your competition has been using for years. But there might be some good news – dealing with these consequences of delaying your IPv6 efforts is more likely going to be your successor’s problem, once the deferment and resulting impacts to the company become evident.


For more information on IPv6, go to Get6.


IPv4 Request Pipeline

By Richard Jimmerson, Chief Information Officer, ARIN

IPv4 pipeline

Today we have .20 of a /8 remaining in the ARIN IPv4 free pool. At the same time, we have over 200 open tickets from organizations requesting IPv4 address space from that free pool. These requests are for sizes ranging from a /23 to larger than a /16. This does not count the many open tickets we have for /24s.

IPv4 inventory 5.7.2015It is possible in the coming weeks we will have enough IPv4 address space requests in the pipeline to account for all the remaining IPv4 address space in the ARIN IPv4 free pool. Because of this, the first organization to elect to be placed on the waiting list for unmet resources may already have an open request for IPv4 address space today.

We are working hard to reduce the response times for IPv4 requests, but are at the same time being very precise about the order in which we review and respond to tickets. Strict adherence to our Phase 4 countdown procedures is more important than ever as we near the end of our IPv4 free pool. It is imperative that we review and respond to all tickets in the order they were received according to their timestamp.

When the first organization elects to be placed on the Waiting List for Unmet Requests, we will let you know. We will send an announcement out via our arin-announce mailing list, update you with another blog in this series, share it on social media, and issue a press release to notify the media about this milestone. We can’t predict exactly when this will happen, but we expect it to be soon. This will be a signal that full depletion of the ARIN IPv4 free pool is imminent.

Of course, organizations have options to obtain IPv4 address space through the transfer process and to request IPv6 address space from ARIN. We will share more information about the status of the ARIN IPv4 inventory in the coming weeks.


Webpass Deploys IPv6 For ARIN 35 Event

The IPv4-IPv6 dual stack network at ARIN 35 last week went off without a hitch. Webpass VP of Technology, Blake Drager, explains what it took to get it up and running. 

Guest blog post by Blake Drager

ARIN partnered with Webpass, an industry leading Internet Service Provider (ISP), to provide the network for the ARIN 35 event held in San Francisco from April 12-15, 2015.

We met with ARIN to determine what type of connectivity was needed:

  • BGP
  • Webpass allocated IPv4 / IPv6
  • ARIN netblocks statically routed to Webpass WAN

Since ARIN has a specifically reserved IPv4 /20 and IPv6 /48 for ARIN and NANOG meeting events, statically routing ARIN’s netblocks within the Webpass network was the best solution.


Webpass’ network is 100% dual-stacked and running on a Brocade CER and MLXe platform so setting up the IP circuit was as simple as:

  1. Adding an IPv4 /30 and an IPv6 /64 for connectivity between networks
  2. Statically routing ARIN’s netblocks with the next-hop being the Webpass WAN IPs
  3. Redistributing the static routes into our OSPF and OSPFv3 tables

After setting up the IP circuit, ARIN’s netblocks were routing within the Webpass network, but we wanted to redistribute these blocks to our eBGP peers so we had to do the following:

  1. Create prefix lists for the ARIN blocks
  2. Add those prefix lists as an applicable route-map statement attached to eBGP neighbors
  3. Verify that the routes were being advertised to Webpass’ eBGP peers
  4. Contact eBGP NOCs, send them the ARIN LOA for  Webpass to advertise ARIN’s netblocks and request that they update their prefix lists accordingly. This took a few emails and a little coercion with some networks, but after a while, ARIN was able to verify their routes were visible in public BGP looking glasses and route servers.

Once all of the above steps had been successfully executed, and the microwave link was installed at the JW Marriott, ARIN was able to verify public connectivity for both IPv4 and IPv6. All things considered, the process was very simple. IPv6 setup required no additional configuration when compared to the IPv4 setup. This is contrary to popular narrative that IPv6 is overly complicated and makes IP provisioning more difficult. Nothing can be further from the truth. Once your network is 100% dual-stacked and your staff is appropriately trained, IPv6 provisioning gets easier.

In fact, if ARIN’s meeting requirements were for IPv6 only, the configuration would have been as simple as Webpass providing ARIN with a /56 or a /48 via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation. DHCPv6 would automatically assign them a /48 with a next hop of their local “fe80″ IPv6 address. The Brocade router would see this delegation occur (via DHCPv6 relay) and automatically insert that route into the routing table as a “delegated static” entry. This is the common Webpass customer IPv6 connectivity configuration.



Blake Drager Blake joined Webpass in 2006 and serves as the Vice President of Technology, leading the Webpass software development and network teams.  Blake started his career at Webpass building systems used to deploy Webpass’ Internet and providing technical support to residential customers. Webpass needed a scalable network that could interface with customers and employees and Blake rose to the challenge of building it. Today, Blake continues to drive software development that enables Webpass to run efficient operations.



ARIN 35 Members Meeting Daily Recap

By Jennifer Bly, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator, ARIN

On the final day of ARIN 35 in San Francisco we wrapped up with a Members Meeting that was open to the entire ARIN community – onsite and online.  Throughout the morning we heard an update on ARIN fees and services and took questions and comments from attendees.

ARIN 35 Meeting 15 April 2015

We received departmental reports from Communications and Member Services, Engineering, Financial Services, Human Resources and Administration, and Registration Services.  Of note, some interesting points shared with the community included:

  • We’re growing our outreach program with more ARIN on the Roads events
  • New Get6 campaign can just launched on TeamARIN
  • There are upcoming changes to the election process and voter eligibility
  • 96,512 ARIN Online accounts have been activated since inception through Q1 of 2015
  • Total Whois traffic reached 12% over IPv6

  • The Operational Test & Evaluation environment is a place to test code and process – about 161 networks have access to today
  •  ARIN has an open source software repository, and you’re invited to make your tools available here too
  • Currently, ARIN has 68 employees and a 95% retention rate
  • ARIN’s IPv4 depletion planning includes maintaining our 2-day service level agreement turn around time
  • We stand ready for the first request that goes on the IPv4 waiting list
  • ARIN expects the IPv4 waiting list will be activated in the coming weeks
  • 65 transfers were approved (all types combined) in March 2015 – that’s more than any other month in ARIN history!

Rounding out the day, we got reports on ARIN finances, the Advisory Council, and Board of Trustees. Concluding the meeting was one more chance for people to bring up topics with a closing open microphone session, during which several attendees expressed their thanks for the meeting and shared their intent to participate again in the future.

In case you want to reference the slides from today’s meeting, all of them are already posted on the ARIN website; and in the coming days, full transcripts, notes, and webcasts from every day of the meeting will also be made available.  Thanks to each of you who participated in ARIN 35 for contributing your insights and expertise.

Mark your calendars for 1-3 June 2015 for ARIN’s Public Policy Consultation in San Francisco, California and 8-9 October 2015 for ARIN 36 in Montréal, Québec.



Daily Recap 2: ARIN 35 Public Policy Meeting

ARIN 35 Daily RecapBy Jennifer Bly, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator, ARIN

Thanks for joining us for our second daily recap about what happened today at ARIN 35.

Kicking off the morning, we heard updates from the Number Resource Organization (NRO) comprising the five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs).  We also viewed many worldwide Internet number resources statistics on ASN, IPv4, and IPv6 allocations and assignments. Later in the day we heard global reports from our colleagues around the world at the IANA, AFRINIC, APNIC, LACNIC, and the RIPE NCC.

In a special Transfer Experience Panel, we heard lessons learned and observations from both brokers and organizations involved in the IPv4 transfer market.  An interesting conversation ensued as attendees asked questions of panelists about IPv4 transfers.

Today the three policies discussed included:

ARIN 35 Hands Raised

In the afternoon we learned about the status of Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) which is a new set of IETF specifications to replace the Whois protocol used by the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) and Domain Name Registries (DNRs).  We finished the day with an open microphone session that covered a range of topics from Internet number transfers to the IANA stewardship transition.

All of today’s discussions will be posted online in in the upcoming weeks, including webcasts, complete transcripts, and abbreviated notes.  In the meanwhile you can download all of the slides decks presented at the meeting already up on the ARIN website.

Lots of ARIN 35 attendees show their support for Get6. See ARIN’s album on Facebook!


Remember, you can participate in the final day of ARIN 35 starting at 9:00 AM PDT tomorrow morning whether you’re onsite with us here in San Francisco or at your home/office/local coffee shop through remote participation.

ARIN 35 Public Policy Meeting Daily Recap: Day 1

By Jennifer Bly, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator, ARIN

ARIN 35 Daily Recap

ARIN’s Public Policy Meeting took place in the Golden Gate City today, bringing together Internet community members from across the region and around the globe to talk about the policies that determine how Internet number resources are distributed.

To start the day off, we heard from the Advisory Council Chair about on-docket proposals.  Then we took a look at regional policies that are being discussed in the four other Regional Internet Registries (RIRs).  We received a report on ARIN’s policy implementation and experiences that identified areas where new or modified policy may be needed based on operational experience and customer feedback.  An IPv6 IAB/IETF Activities Report took a look at what is going on at Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) meetings.

In the late morning, we heard from a Consolidated RIR IANA Stewardship Proposal (CRISP) Team Panel that reviewed the proposal submitted to the IANA Stewardship Coordination Group (ICG).  The panelists talked about the current status, the next steps, and they also took many questions from attendees.


The policies we discussed today included:

We wrapped up the day with an ARIN software development update.  Yesterday during ARIN 35, we had two great tutorials.  First, those who attended learned all about Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) in How to Certify Your ARIN Resources with RPKI.  The hands-on session walked through how to sign up for Hosted RPKI (in a test environment) and how to issue a Route Origin Authorization (ROA).  Second, during a tutorial on Life After IPv4 Depletion, we found out about the various options for obtaining IP address space as we near full IPv4 address depletion.  There was also an orientation for first time meeting attendees.

We enjoyed chatting with you on Twitter throughout the meeting.  Here are some of our favorites using the #ARIN35 hashtag so far.  Keep up the sharing!

If you want to refer to anything you saw or heard at the meeting so far, today’s slides are already up on our website, and the full webcast archives will be added at a later date.

Remember, you don’t have to be with us in San Francisco to participate in the meeting.  There are still two more days of ARIN 35 left, and remote participants can watch the webcasts, follow the live transcript, vote in polls, and submit questions and comments via a Jabber chat room.  Please register to take full advantage of our remote participation options. Tomorrow we’ll be back in session at 9:00 AM PDT and at the end of the day, we’ll be posting another daily recap right here on TeamARIN.



Get To Know the ARIN 35 Fellows

By the ARIN 35 Fellows

Only a few days are left until ARIN 35 takes to San Francisco. We’re getting excited and hope you are too! Coming to their first ARIN Public Policy and Members meeting are five fellows who are eager to learn more and dive into policy discussions at ARIN 35.

ARIN 35 Fellows

Get to know these ARIN 35 fellowship recipients so you can be sure to say hi and strike up a conversation with these outstanding individuals:

Andre Graham

Programme Coordinator, University College of the Caribbean – Jamaica

What is the #1 fun thing you hope to do while in San Francisco?

Riding the tram and visiting Fisherman’s Wharf.

Describe how you would modify a snail so it would go faster. 

Modify its shell and add wheels to it.

What interests you about ARIN?

With the advent of new and emerging technologies and the need for each device to have an IP address it is imperative to know how the change from IPv4 to IPv6 will impact these devices and communication in general on the various networking platforms. It is interesting to know that ARIN is actively seeking to educate and sensitize the region on how to make the switch from IPv4 to IPv6 and I would love to get the opportunity to be a part of this growing community. Additionally, I am also interested in the area of Internet Governance and the policies being put in place to manage this vast network and its implications for developing Caribbean nations.

How do you think your ARIN Meeting experience will benefit you or your organization when you return home?

In my capacity as a Programme Coordinator for the IT programmes at the University College of the Caribbean I will use my meeting experience and the knowledge gained at the meeting to disseminate the information to the stakeholders that I interface with.

If you could have one super power what would it be and why?

A combination of the powers of Batman, Superman, Spiderman and Hulk with the ability to heal myself.  This would help me to be able to assist persons in danger and to give the aggressors a beat down when necessary.


Stephen Ives

Sr. Network Engineer, Matanuska Telephone Assn. – Alaska, USA

What is the #1 fun thing you hope to do while in San Francisco?

Going to a Giants baseball game.

Describe how you would modify a snail so it would go faster.

I would attach lubricating system on the head and miniature water jets on the side so that it could slide faster.

What interests you about ARIN?

I’m interested in the decision making process for IP address allocation.

How do you think your ARIN Meeting experience will benefit you or your organization when you return home?

Allow us to better serve our customers with their IP addressing needs.

If you could have one super power what would it be and why?

My super power would be teleportation, because it would be the most comfortable and fastest way to travel.


Andrew Trudgeon

Manager, Scandia ISP Internet Inc. – Ontario, Canada

What is the #1 fun thing you hope to do while in San Francisco?

See the golden gate bridge and the full house tv show house haha.

Describe how you would modify a snail so it would go faster.

Rocket boosters, must have rocket booster.

What interests you about ARIN?

We are a small ISP and as such are always looking for ways to be most efficient. With IP addresses dwindled, moving to IPv6 has been a big under taking for us and would love more info or guidance on how we can better make this transition.

What do you intend to accomplish by attending an ARIN Meeting?

Gain industry knowledge and create friendships within the ARIN industry to help us move forward on the next big undertaking.

If you could have one super power what would it be and why?

Invisibility – seems like you could do a lot of things being invisible to help fight crime.


Michael SchlohMichael Schloh

Computer Scientist, MSvB Recherche – California, USA

What is the #1 fun thing you hope to do while in San Francisco?

Take a walk (or run) in some nice place, and visit a hackerspace.

Describe how you would modify a snail so it would go faster.

Give it excellent teammates and coworkers.

What interests you about ARIN? 

Network peering, routing, standardization, general network engineering, and keeping standards and implementations of exotic (like SCTP) protocols consistent during adoption.   But… I’m mostly interested in IPv6 and helping to promote it. I operate three IPv6 networks and try to be instrumental in motivating operators to migrate their legacy IPv4 nodes to IPv6.

What do you intend to accomplish by attending an ARIN Meeting?

Learn of the process that diverse interest groups and regions control the network landscape. I would also like to propose ideas, such as those originating from a current RTC communications project to advance Internet principles communication.   Secondly, I am a ‘Intel Innovator’ with the mandate to promote the Internet of Things (IoT) which I believe will only fly on robust IPv6 networks. This topic is worthy of idea exchange at the San Francisco meeting, as well as networking at home with those getting started with IoT and IPv6.   Lately I’ve been very active with the Tor project, and would like to network with others to enable and facilitate democratic information and communication via standardized interfaces.

If you could have one super power what would it be and why?

To be able to travel through time via a mayonnaise layer.


Jon AitchisonJon Aitchison

Senior Policy Advisor,Government of Canada – Ontario, Canada

What is the #1 fun thing you hope to do while in San Francisco?

Escape from Alcatraz.

Describe how you would modify a snail so it would go faster. 

I’d give my snail redbull, that stuff gives you wings.

What do you intend to accomplish by attending an ARIN Meeting?

I have participated in all forms of internet policy debate, whether it be from a private sector, Academic or Government policy perspective. I look forward to the opportunity to bring this experience to the conversation and to deepen/refresh my understanding of the technical discussions around internet architecture in order to inform my perspective on appropriate governance and security debates.

How do you think your ARIN Meeting experience will benefit you or your organization when you return home?

My goal is to deepen my technical knowledge and to understand all sides of the debates over internet’s future. Forward looking policy is difficult and exposure to big, mutifacted ideas is often difficult to solicit in one place. I hope this meeting will do just that and give me broader perspective on medium to long range issues.

If you could have one super power what would it be and why?

Bradley Cooper’s power from limitless. It’s great because it leverages what we all already have.  And if I could manufacture the pills I’d give them to everyone. It’d be great to be brilliant but better to be surrounded by brilliance.


Since its inception in 2009, the ARIN Fellowship program has allowed over forty different people to attend their first ARIN Meeting. ARIN warmly welcomes our newest ARIN Fellows to San Francisco and hopes you join their ranks in the future! Applications are already open for our next meeting ARIN 36 in Montreal, so take five short minutes to apply today.


What the FCC Net Neutrality Order Means for IP Addressing

By Cathy Handley, Executive Director of Government Affairs and Public Policy, ARIN

Earlier this year the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved an “Open Internet Order” that reclassified broadband service providers as public utilities.  There’s been quite a bit of excitement recently about the FCC Reclassification Order and its references to public IP addresses, so it is worth taking a moment to review exactly what is in (and not in) the Order.


As part of the reclassification of Internet services, the Order does expand the definition of “public switched network” to include IP addresses –

“Specifically, we revise the definition of “public switched network” to mean “the network that includes any common carrier switched network … that use[s] the North American Numbering Plan, or public IP addresses, …” (Reclassification Order  ¶ 391)

Public IP addresses are globally routable unicast IP addresses. See Internet Engineering Task Force, The Internet Numbers Registry System, RFC 7020 (Aug. 2013), https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7020 (discussing non- reserved globally unique unicast IP addresses assigned through the Internet Numbers Registry System).” (Reclassification Order  ¶ 391, note 1115)

It is quite understandable that this change has set off speculation about the implications, if any, for the existing Internet Numbers Registry System.  The Internet Numbers Registry System consists of parties well known to the Internet service provider community, including the IETF, IANA, ICANN, the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs), ISPs acting as Local Internet Registries, etc.  All told, more than 30,000 organizations globally participate through the RIRs in the Internet Numbers Registry System, and it has been instrumental to the successful growth of the Internet.

So, why did the FCC redefine “public switched network” in this manner, and does it portend an attempt to take over the Internet?  Should the IETF, ICANN, and the RIRs be concerned about future FCC regulations affecting IP address policy?

The short answer to the first question of “why redefine public switched network to include IP addresses?” is simply that in order to include mobile Internet users in the scope of its network neutrality order, the FCC needed to make clear that these users are receiving “commercial mobile services” which are interconnected by nature to a “public switched network” (and thus subject to regulation by the existing regulatory framework).  The FCC updates to these definitions could be seen as reflecting the changes in technology over the last decade and the now ubiquitous use of mobile Internet services by the public.

As to the second question of “should the IETF, ICANN, and the RIRs be concerned about future FCC regulations affecting IP address policy?”, it is probably best to simply look further into the Order for the intent –

“This definitional change to our regulations in no way asserts Commission jurisdiction over the assignment or management of IP addressing by the Internet Numbers Registry System.”  (Reclassification Order  ¶ 391, note 1116)

The FCC recognizes the huge economic, social, and civic benefits afforded by the Internet, and while their Open Internet Order does reference “public IP addresses”, it is clear that this is driven by the desire to place mobile Internet services within regulatory framework rather than any attempt or desire to change the existing and remarkable successful Internet Numbers Registry System.


Tinkering with IPv6 on a Home Router

Working in the IT world, Chris Harvey was naturally curious about IPv6, so he decided to set up IPv6 on his home network when it was time to upgrade his router, and now he blogs about his experience.

Guest blog post by Chris Harvey

Some may say I’m crazy, and a few of them would be right, but I’ve long tracked the growth of IPv6 given that I worked at Comcast for a number of years and my manager was instrumental in the Comcast push into IPv6. As a result it’s been fairly well drummed into me that this is something we all have to tackle at some point, or else the results of inaction will tackle everyone to the ground.

I guess you could say that I’m lucky enough to have been in the IT world for all of my career, so I’m one of many IT savvy people that are not too phased by configuring networks and getting my seemingly ever growing body of electrical devices connected to a network. Having said that, what less IT literate folks realize (I’m thinking of my mother here) is that even for those of us “in” the industry, change is usually a learning process too. We just have a level of experience to lean on that helps us catch on a little quicker than someone who’s not exposed at all.

I can clearly remember a few (ok, maybe many) years ago being completely mystified by many aspects of IT that my more senior and experienced colleagues took for granted. My point of saying this is, don’t think “it must be easy for him, because he knows what he’s doing”. Well actually most of the time I don’t, I’m just trying things and seeing the results. I may be able to interpret the results faster than someone with no experience, but I don’t have a magic wand that instantly makes me understand the new technology any more than my mother leaning on years of cooking experience to realize that leaving that toast in for just a bit too long is going to burn it.

Being “in” the industry always makes me lean towards new projects like initiating IPv6 with both a little excitement and trepidation. For my wife it’s more a dread of “oh great, now I’m going to lose my husband to the computer for two days while he figures this out, and in that time nothing else will get done”. That being said, it was time to upgrade my router from Comcast. I’d received a few emails saying it needed upgrading, so I decided to make the change knowing that the next generation of DOCSIS 3 modems would finally give me access to IPv6 for all my computers, tablets, phones and other ancillary and ever-connected devices in the house.

Frankly, enabling IPv6 couldn’t have been easier. Of course I made it much more complex by trying to understand the changes and morph them to my own desires.  At the end of the day simply plugging in the new modem was enough of a change to enable IPv6 to the devices on my network that could already speak that language, which is about every single one of them.

Because it would be pretty boring if I just stopped there, let me give a little more detail around what I did do, what worked and what didn’t and where I’ve ended up.

Firstly, it’s worth knowing we have an almost entirely Apple-based house. There are some devices in my house that are not Apple products, such as Internet radios and wireless HVAC thermostats, but mostly it’s Apple products. OSX has been IPv6-enabled for a long time so I expected this to be relatively easy and in fact it was.

Comcast supplied the modem, and it was provisioned into the account by customer care when I picked it up. Once home, I plugged it into the power and the coax cable. It took a few minutes to get up and running, but all status lights came on correctly.

The xfinity modem by default has a home WIFI which you can either immediately use with the SSID passcode that’s provided, or using the admin interface, you can rename it. Whether you connect an ethernet cable directly to the modem or use the WIFI, it’s IPv6-enabled.

The administration screen is easy to access, although not all that obvious, but Google (or the search engine of your choice) solved that. Essentially from any of your devices that connect to the modem, either hard wired, or wirelessly through the SSID mentioned above, the admin screen can be found on and the administrative credentials are easily found online. As you’d expect, you cannot administer this from the outside network unless you specifically enable it, so just because the admin user’s ID and password are easily discovered, doesn’t mean anyone can access your router.

Since I already have an Apple Airport that is my wireless router, I wanted to keep it. The modem by default comes configured as a router, so having another one inside the network means you end up with a “double NAT” scenario. I’ve yet to find anything specifically poor about this arrangement, but it’s certainly not ideal, and it does not allow for you to have an IPv6 address on your devices. So for that reason, I put the new modem into a “bridge mode”, which essentially makes it transparent to the network and passes traffic through to my Airport which means my devices automagically obtain IPv6 addresses.

To test whether you either have or are using an IPv6 address, the easiest method is to use your web browser. There are many sites to choose from, but I found these two particularly useful: http://test-ipv6.com and http://ipv6-test.com, with the latter doing a very nice job of telling you what your browser is doing. If you want to do something a little more hardcore, you can issue the following command on an OSX terminal.

ifconfig en1


ether c8:e0:cb:1c:48:69

inet6 fe80::cbb0:ebff:f3fc:4869%en1 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x5

inet netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast

inet6 2601:8:a80:edef9:cab0:ebff:fe3c:4869 prefixlen 64 autoconf

inet6 2601:8:a80:edef9:dd47:5cd1:eaa1:1a4a prefixlen 64 deprecated autoconf temporary

inet6 2601:8:a80:edef9:5ded:d7c2:27b8:de85 prefixlen 64 autoconf temporary

nd6 options=1<PERFORMNUD>

media: autoselect

status: active

But at the end of the day, you shouldn’t need to do this. The point of IPv6 is that it simply works, so you shouldn’t need to mess around trying to make it work. The new modem and the Airport negotiate how to handle the address allocation, and it all works smoothly.

I took a bunch of extra steps that I could document for you regarding setting up my guest network, allocating a different network segment for it and essentially delving pretty deep into getting things setup how I wanted.  But in the end, the only thing I really needed to do to ensure my Airport environment worked was to alter the modem to bridge mode. If I didn’t have my own router and wanted to use the built in SSID that comes on the modem, which by the way you can rename if you want to, then out of the box my IPv6-capable devices would all have started using IPv6. Where they don’t, they fall back to IPv4, which we all still mostly rely on. I note with interest that my Airport Utility still has a strong focus on IPv4. Although it supports IPv6 transparently, any IP setup option still mostly involves IPv4 addresses. I wonder if that will change over time?


Chris HarveyChris has over 20 years of experience in the computer industry, including software sales engineering, implementation, consulting and solutions architecture. Chris’ career diversity stems from many years as a successful independent consultant, sales engineer, internal and external solutions architect; all within a variety of well respected companies in senior positions providing leadership, mentoring, product or solution delivery.





Defining Depletion: IPv4 Address Availability in the ARIN Region

By Richard Jimmerson, Chief Information Officer, ARIN

Here at ARIN we have been actively discussing the depletion of the IPv4 free pool for many years. Our goal has been to prepare the Internet community for the day when we can no longer issue IPv4 address space to those who need it. As that day approaches, there has been increased interest in how IPv4 addresses are issued and what the options are after we reach depletion. To help provide more insight into the status of IPv4 at ARIN, this will be the first of a blog series to keep you informed about IPv4 depletion and the current status of IP addresses remaining in our free pool.

IPv4 Depletion is Real

One of the major milestones of IPv4 depletion was in February 2011 when the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) issued their final /8 blocks to each of the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs). Working with our final /8 blocks, each of the RIRs were well into establishing their respective countdown to depletion procedures.

In the ARIN region, a four-phase countdown plan was created that described how ARIN would distribute its remaining IPv4 address blocks. Today we are in the 4th and final phase of that countdown plan.

Remaining IPv4 Inventory 18 March 2015We have also been publishing information on a regular basis about the remaining IPv4 free pool inventory at ARIN. As of today, our IPv4 inventory stands at .31 of a /8. We also publish the number of discrete block sizes that remain in the inventory. This information is available and updated daily at our IPv4 depletion information page. In addition to the inventory, you can also find information about the various options to obtain IPv4 address space through ARIN policies as the ARIN IPv4 free pool depletes.

Defining Depletion

Depletion means different things in different parts of the world. In some of the other Regional Internet Registries, depletion has been associated with the triggering of “final” IPv4 regional number resource policy when the RIR dug into it’s last /8 of inventory. For ARIN no such policy existed, but we have already been issuing from our last /8 for almost a year now. ARIN’s current IPv4 inventory no longer includes /8s, /9s, or /10s, so depletion of these size blocks has already occurred.

Within the ARIN region, depletion status varies depending on the needs of an organization. For some larger organizations in the ARIN region, their IPv4 address space needs going forward may exceed the amount they can obtain from ARIN’s remaining inventory, i.e., depletion has effectively already occurred for these organizations. For others, depletion will soon become a reality.

We expect to receive requests in the coming months that qualify for IPv4 block sizes that are no longer available in ARIN’s inventory. In these cases, organizations may elect to be placed on a waiting list for their qualified block size, or elect to receive a smaller block size that is still available in the ARIN inventory. Organizations may also obtain IPv4 address space through a transfer from another organization. More information about these options are available at our IPv4 depletion page.

As ARIN gets closer to IPv4 free pool depletion in the coming months, we will provide additional updates. If you have ideas for topics or questions that you’d like us to address in this blog series, please let us know in the comments below or on social media.


IPv6-Brewed Coffee Over Bluetooth Smart

Glenn Ruben Bakke explains how Nordic Semiconductor is connecting to the Internet of Things using IPv6 over Bluetooth Smart in everything from keyboards to coffee makers.

Guest blog post by Glenn Ruben Bakke

IOT IPv6 Over Bluetooth Smart

Believe it or not, the day has come when your coffee machine could know what exactly what kind of coffee you like to drink depending on the cup you’re using, the time of day, and a multitude of other factors. Earlier this year, the Nordic Semiconductor team demonstrated a smart coffee machine at CES that brewed coffee over IPv6. But coffee machines aren’t the only place where innovation is possible. As a leader in Bluetooth Smart solutions you will find our chips in products all around your home from wireless keyboards and mouse, TV remote controls all the way through to wirelessly controlled toys. Basically, we are already in a wide range of diverse devices. So, for us, extending those devices connectivity through the internet was the next logical step.

We are a strong advocate and believer that the right long term approach for connecting everything to the Internet is by using open standards. In this way obstructive barriers to cross-platform, device and OS communications will be dissolved.

IPv6 Over Bluetooth Smart

Recently a lot of effort has been made by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to make the Internet suitable for smaller devices, something that is referred to as 6LoWPAN. Bluetooth Smart Specific adaptations and recommendations for 6LoWPAN are being defined as BLE 6LoWPAN and can be found here.

BLE 6LoWPAN enables compression of IPv6 traffic and optimizations in procedures (for example, neighbor discovery) on Bluetooth Smart. BLE 6LoWPAN defines Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) of IPv6 addresses using the Bluetooth Smart Device Addresses. The 6LoWPAN-enabled Bluetooth Smart device will derive a EUI-64 address based on its own EUI-48 MAC address and this is combined with the assigned prefix to form an IPv6 address.

Stack Diagram

BLE 6LoWPAN defines two roles for Bluetooth Smart devices: the 6LoWPAN node role and 6LoWPAN edge router role. In the 6LoWPAN node role Bluetooth Smart devices can connect to the internet over Bluetooth Smart using a border router. The border router role acts as a device that is connected to the internet and provides access for the nodes to the internet.

6lowpan Roles

IPv6-enabled Coffee Machine

We wanted to demonstrate the exciting possibilities that this technology enables and we wanted to show that by doing something practical. What better way than brewing coffee over IPv6? – not only demonstrating a connected appliance that can be controlled and monitored from the Internet, but also getting a nice cup of coffee at the end of it.

The coffee machine, being IP enabled, has its own IPv6 address which means it is directly addressable from the Internet. Also, native support IP protocols allow the coffee machine and the cloud application to use the same protocol without any need of proxy or translations. The application protocol used in this demo is MQTT, a TCP based protocol.

In this demo you can request a brew through the web interface. You can also see if the coffee machine is brewing or idle, the number of cups brewed etc. – all examples of monitoring a remote appliance.

We used the following hardware components to brew coffee over IPv6:

  1. Coffee machine – connected to the nRF51 Development Kit playing the role of BLE 6LowPAN node role and an MQTT client.
  2. Raspberry PI   – playing the role of BLE 6LoWPAN router providing connectivity to the internet to the coffee machine by routing packets between its Bluetooth and Ethernet network interfaces.
  3. PC symbolizing a cloud server. The PC provides the software infrastructure of the demo.

Coffe Machine Setup

The software pieces we used are:

  1. MQTT broker. MQTT protocol requires a central broker that manages messages between various clients that connect to it. Here, HiveMQ is used as the broker.
  2. Django web server providing an interface to control the coffee machine.
  3. Database is used to store information related to the coffee machine.
  4. A controller module that listens for messages from coffee machines. Any updates or request to the database are handled by this module.

Coffee Web Interface

Routing on Raspberry Pi

Once a 6LoWPAN node connects to the Raspberry PI, a Bluetooth network interface appears on the Raspberry Pi. Routing packets to this Bluetooth Network interface is like routing packets on any network interface. Linux provides a router advertisement daemon, radvd, which is used in this setup.

The radvd is setup to delegate an IPv6 prefix to all the endpoints connecting to the switch so that global IPv6 address can be created on the nodes using State-Less Address Auto-Configuration (SLAAC). The Ethernet interface (eth0) takes care of devices connecting to the simulated global network, and the Bluetooth interface (bt0) takes care of the IPv6/6LoWPAN over Bluetooth Smart devices connection. For Bluetooth, radvd will give each node on the link (bt0) a 2001:def:: prefix, and for Ethernet each node will get a 2003:abc:: prefix using 2003:abc::1 as gateway.


6 radvd config

A route is also put up between the global network (eth0) and the Bluetooth/6LoWPAN network (bt0) that connects the 2001:def:: subnet to 2003:abc:: subnet. This makes the Bluetooth nodes available in the simulated global network.

Routing on Raspberry PI

With this setup each coffee machine can create a TCP connection to the MQTT broker using its global IPv6 address, publish messages and listen to responses or commands.

We were proud to demo our IPv6 coffee machine at CES earlier this year and see it as the first – and major – step of many devices into IoT over IPv6.


Glenn Ruben BakkeGlenn Ruben Bakke is a Software Engineer who has been developing software for Nordic Semiconductor’s nRF51 Series ICs as well as working on the development of the IoT SDK.





The Per Scholas Approach to Bringing IPv6 into the Classroom

Eduardo Hernandez of Per Scholas shows why IPv6 is an essential part of the curriculum for IT students as they prepare for jobs in the tech industry.

Guest blog post by Eduardo Hernandez

I am an instructor at Per Scholas, a national nonprofit organization that provides free technology education, career development and job placement services to unemployed and underemployed individuals throughout Columbus and Cincinnati, OH; Dallas, New York City, and Silver Spring, MD. We take pride in providing comprehensive technical training to individuals with no background in technology, and on average the school trains approximately 800 students a year and 75 percent successfully go on to land jobs in tech.   I take a lead role in making curriculum enhancements and adjustments based on the industry trends (I am also a graduate of the program myself!), and recently we decided to add IPv6 to the curriculum.

Per Scholas Teaching

Despite struggles in adaptation, IPv6 is clearly the future when it comes to finding a solution to the currently depleting addressing space.  It is with this thought that Per Scholas is beginning to roll out changes in our curriculum, which not only embrace IPv6, but successfully train students in becoming proponents and implementers of the addressing scheme.  This means that we are assisting nearly 600 freshly trained students with broad technical skills and new perspectives to enter the IT workforce this year with IPv6 networking skills that employers are looking for.

For those unfamiliar with networking, IPv6 can be overwhelming and exceedingly complex. As educators it is imperative that we approach IPv6 via active student participation. To implement this philosophy my students create an account on https://www.sixxs.net at the beginning of my first IPv6 lesson.  SixXs is a free IPv6 tunnel broker.  Once students create an account they may apply for their own tunnel.  Upon tunnel creation students are given their own IPv6 address to a public PoP, along with a range of routable subnets.  The idea behind this approach is that students will go home and do the same procedure on their home networks, thus increasing their knowledge base and preparing for the future of total IPv6 implementation.  Once a student has successfully created a 6-to-4 tunnel on their computer, various other lessons are assigned which further their understanding of IPv6.

Following this preliminary experience with IPv6, we are then ready to tackle the complicated task of IPv6 subnetting.  When it comes to subnetting most educators will agree that it is one of the most difficult concepts for students to understand.  With IPv4, subnetting was necessary, and although with IPv6 it is not required it is still very important for a network technician to know.  Subnetting IPv6 is rather daunting since students need to train their brains into working with hexadecimals.  As practice exercises students work with the subnets given to them from the tunnel broker and apply them in class.  This allows them to see the fruits of their labor.

IPv6 is here to stay! As more and more people get connected to the web, with every device having its own IP address, and the Internet of Things (IOT) becoming a reality, there will be more demand for technicians who can implement IPv6.  The Per Scholas approach is to give students the best tools to succeed in the ever-changing IT world, so that is why we have added IPv6 to our curriculum. It is important that IT educators give the tools necessary for success to their students.  I for one am glad to finally get rid of NAT and the complexities of setting up IPv4 networks.  IPv6 is the future; it is time to embrace it.


Eduardo HernandezEduardo Hernandez is an Associate Director of Technical Instruction at Per Scholas. He began his career there 2 years ago as a student.  He took part in an advanced IT training program called Project Scale.  Upon graduation Eduardo obtained valuable industry certifications: CompTia A+, Security +, and Cisco CCNA certification. Prior to his position at Per Scholas, Eduardo graduated with a Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science from Pace University and worked as a Network and Security consultant. He also ran a successful after-school tutoring business.

IPv4 Depletion Status at ARIN

By Leslie Nobile, Director of Registration Services, ARIN

What happens after ARIN depletes its free pool of IPv4 address space?  Will there be a Phase 5 added to the IPv4 Countdown Plan? Is the IPv4 inventory counter always accurate?  These are just some of the questions we’ve been hearing in recent weeks. We understand that IPv4 depletion is causing confusion and uncertainty, so we’d like to try address some of these common questions and provide some additional information on the current status of IPv4 address space at ARIN.

Update on the IPv4 Countdown Plan

ARIN moved into the final stage (Phase 4) of its documented IPv4 Countdown Plan in April 2014. ARIN’s IPv4 countdown plan was designed to have only 4 stages, which means that we will continue working in Phase 4 as we move toward full depletion of ARIN’s available IPv4 inventory.  ARIN will not be adding a Phase 5 but will continue in Phase 4 when IPv4 needs will be met through IPv4 address transfers and the IPv4 waiting list.

You can find more detail on the Countdown Plan on our website and in some earlier blog posts (dated April and October 2014). In Phase 4, all IPv4 requests are processed in the order they are received and are team-reviewed by ARIN’s resource analysts. While team review has slowed down overall processing times, we are working diligently to streamline the process and maintain our standard two-day response time on all IPv4 request tickets.

Although you might have expected to see a rapid increase in IPv4 requests, or a “run on the bank” once we hit our last /8, IPv4 resource traffic has actually remained fairly steady since that time.  We did see a slight increase in April 2014 after we announced that we had reached Phase 4 of the Countdown Plan, but other than that, things have been fairly consistent.

2014 Requests for IPv4 Address Space

2014 Delegation Issued by ARIN

The IPv4 Counter

The IPv4 inventory counter displayed on ARIN’s homepage (see it on the bottom right at www.arin.net), was designed to provide the community with a daily snapshot of how much IPv4 address space ARIN has left in its available pool. The counter shows the total number of /8 equivalents remaining in ARIN’s available IPv4 inventory as well as a list of the total number of prefixes available of any given size.  “Available space” includes our current IPv4 inventory minus any returned, reclaimed, or revoked address blocks that may be in a hold status.  Hold status is a term that describes address space held by ARIN until it clears any filters before being released back into ARIN’s IPv4 free pool. The “Available space” as reflected in the IPv4 counter fluctuates regularly based on new allocations and assignments being issued, and incoming address space being taken off its hold status.

ARIN IPv4 Counter 2.6.15

If you use our daily ARIN-issued mailing list to help you keep track of how much IPv4 address remains in ARIN’s inventory, you will find that it does not match the IPv4 inventory counter on our homepage. In fact, you will likely find several discrepancies between the ARIN-issued report and the IPv4 inventory counter.

The ARIN-issued mailing list provides a daily report of IPv4 and IPv6 address space returned to ARIN’s available inventory and IPv4 and IPv6 address space issued directly by ARIN to its customers. The data reported in the ARIN-issued report also includes IPv4 address space issued via 8.3 transfer which is NOT included in the IPv4 counter.  Additionally, once ARIN approves an IPv4 address block, it is immediately removed from the available inventory and placed on hold until registration fees have been paid and a Registration Services Agreement has been signed.  These resources will not show up in the available inventory, nor will they show up on the ARIN-issued report until all administrative tasks have been completed.

As we watch the IPv4 counter continue to drop, ARIN will strive to keep things running as smoothly as possible.  IPv4 depletion comes as no surprise, and as we reach these final stages, we will continue to conduct “business as usual” and provide our customers with the best possible service we can. And in the face of ultimate IPv4 depletion, we will continue to encourage all ARIN customers to get their IPv6 address space to ensure the future growth of their networks. There is plenty for everyone!


ARIN moves main operations out of HQ

By Mark Kosters, Chief Technology Officer

Moving BoxesLast year, ARIN Engineering undertook a monumental effort to move production from our headquarters in Chantilly, Virginia to a colocation center in Ashburn, Virginia. There were many reasons behind this big move, and we were very happy to complete a flawless transfer of our operations.

ARIN has its offices in an office park nestled next to Dulles Airport in northern Virginia. Because of the proximity to the airport having essential production systems singularly located at ARIN’s headquarters is certainly not an optimal situation.

We are also located right at the junction of two major commuter routes, which has its own pros and cons. Based on the existing land use and exit paths (most bounded by Dulles airport), our power situation has been at times, unreliable.  There is only one power feed into the office park and no redundancy, poor network access (only two providers serve the office park) and lack of sustainable power in the event of a failure. To make matters worse, there has been substantial construction on one of these commuter routes, which has resulted a couple of unplanned outages. Because we are committed to ensuring ARIN is available online 100% of the time, we decided it was best for us to move our operations out of ARIN HQ to a more suitable location with robust power and more abundant connectivity options.

ARIN spent a good deal of time testing services before we moved. Our environments are standardized to help with system configuration management software (Puppet) that made the move easier. After a year’s worth of planning and work to prepare for this event, we successfully moved the systems from ARIN HQ to the colocation center. Our only hiccup on moving day was some weird behavior dealing with multicast on our new Juniper switches. We got the issue solved and opened the front door to the public close to 9:00 PM on 1 November 2014. We are happy to report the new colocation has been working out well since the move, and ARIN’s provisioning systems are now more reliably placed to better serve you and perform the essential operations of the Internet.



CES 2015: Bringing IPv6 Answers to the World of Consumer Electronics

By Sean Hopkins, Communications and Technical Editor

Last week ARIN set up shop in the Las Vegas Convention Center alongside a veritable ocean of technology experts and gadget gurus. From automotive technology to personal drones, one of CES’ main themes revolved around all the exciting ways that new devices could connect and take advantage of the Internet.

ARIN Booth at CES

Most of the new gadgets at CES are identified by and will connect to the Internet using IP addresses, which are anything but new. As we hit the home stretch of IPv4 depletion, it’s imperative that IPv6 be enabled on not just new devices but also on the websites that advertise and sell them.

This isn’t a new story, and IPv6 once again found a place on the CES agenda. John Sweeting of Time Warner Cable attended the “Getting to 50 Billion Devices: CEA & The Internet of Things” panel and offered the following comments:

The focus of the panel was to inform attendees that it was really time, perhaps past time, to start deploying IPv6 in order to realize the potential of the Internet of Things. The panelists provided their views on building future proof IPv6 devices, and a new standard was introduced. The new standard, CEA-2048, defines the technical requirements for IPv6-enabled connected devices and home routers. This specification will help developers target the right features for IPv6 compatibility. It’s great to see the consumer electronics industry getting serious about IPv6 with this new standard.

We were happy to see IPv6 connectivity on websites of several CES exhibitors including:


We also found some IPv6-brewed coffee while at the show. John Springer, ARIN Advisory Council member, explains, “It was great to establish contact with Nordic Semiconductor. Those folks have an interesting story with their intent to shift Bluetooth device communications into the cloud via IPv6 and 802.11.” They were demonstrating how even coffee machines could work over IPv6.

Nordic Semiconductor CES


For more information on how you can get your products and services ready for IPv6 check out our IPv6 Info Center and IPv4 Depletion and IPv6 Adoption pages, and we’ll see you at our next event!