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How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the New Whois: RDAP

By Andy Newton, Chief Engineer, ARIN

In the summer of 2015, you may have heard about a new service ARIN was rolling out called the Registration Data Access Protocol, or RDAP. Perhaps you understood that it was intended to be a successor to the Whois protocol, but you weren’t clear on the specifics. Maybe you weren’t even aware of the need for a replacement. And come on, what really makes RDAP better than Whois? The answer is a lot and if you’re not using it by now, you should be.

Let’s start with some background: for many years, Whois was the gold standard when it came to querying resource registration data from the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) and Domain Name Registries (DNRs). However, Whois was not without its limitations, the first being that Whois is a text-based protocol. In layman’s terms, this means that it’s difficult for computers to interpret the meaning of the results. Second, Whois utilizes a specialized protocol and port, meaning that numerous firewalls could block it, rendering it unusable in many places. Lastly, its response data objects may not be translated into languages other than English, which is a hindrance for obvious reasons. Whois also doesn’t define queries or responses, so interaction with different DNRs and RIRs can vary significantly and in unique ways.

To address these increasingly problematic issues, RDAP was developed. Like Whois, RDAP is a directory service for Internet number resources, but it offers numerous advantages over the aging Whois protocol.

To begin with, RDAP uses Representational State Transfer (RESTful) web technologies to make access to registration data as robust as possible. These are the same set of technologies used by modern Internet services such as Twitter, Facebook, Google, Amazon, and more. Additionally, RDAP’s response data objects are easily translated into languages other than English, and it can offer direct referrals to other RIRs when necessary.

In addition to these perks, one of the other main advantages of RDAP is query bootstrapping. Query bootstrapping is the process of determining where an initial query should be sent, whether that’s an RIR or DNR. This process tends to be time-consuming, so ARIN offers its own bootstrapping service to make RDAP queries as fast as possible. This bootstrap service preloads and indexes all the necessary information, so all you need to do is send an RDAP query to the bootstrapping service, and ARIN will redirect the query to the appropriate place.

Bootstrapping

Should you wish to operate your own bootstrap server, ARIN’s is open source and available via GitHub. ARIN has also developed NicInfo, a smart, command-line RDAP client. NicInfo will attempt to determine the most appropriate RDAP server to query and follow redirects to other RDAP servers as needed.

If all of this isn’t enough to convince you to start using RDAP, keep in mind that RDAP has a very bright future ahead. Some promising trends include all five RIRs having an RDAP server now, several DNRs beginning to deploy it (such as Nic.BR and CNNIC), VeriSign prototyping tiered access to Whois data via RDAP, and finally, ARIN looking into putting Routing Policy Specification Language into RDAP.

By now it should be plain to see that RDAP holds plenty of advantages over Whois, both currently and in the future. So are you ready to start using RDAP? There are a couple ways to get started:

  • To query ARIN’s RDAP service using our bootstrap service, use https://rdap.arin.net/bootstrap/
  • If you want to query without using our bootstrap service, use https://rdap.arin.net/registry/

If you need help, the RDAP page on the ARIN website provides more information on how to correctly configure your searches. You can also view related RFCs.

If you have more questions about RDAP, subscribe and post to the ARIN Tech Discuss mailing list, or check out the archives to see if your question has already been answered.

Get6 with ARIN by Your Side

By Kim Kelly, Communications Writer, ARIN

It’s no secret that we’ve been touting IPv6 as your connection to the “Whole Internet” for a while now. In fact, we’ve been shouting from the rooftops for years that it’s time for you to Get6. Along the way, you’ve asked us some great questions like what exactly IPv6 is, how it differs from IPv4, what the advantages are, and even how you can deploy it (that last one is music to our ears!). But now we have a question for you: have you actually taken that final step of joining us on the Whole Internet yet?

If you haven’t, maybe you’re still feeling a little unsure about where to begin. You know you need some more training and understanding – and maybe even a little collaboration with others who have made the journey – but you’re not sure where to find those resources. Look no more! We’re proud to introduce you to one of ARIN’s most powerful tools that you may not be aware of yet: the IPv6 wiki.

ARIN IPv6 WikiARIN is always looking for ways to assist the community by providing education and outreach on migration to IPv6, and this wiki provides just that. This site includes people just like you recommending best practices, sharing success stories, detailing case studies, and providing general information on using IPv6 in the ARIN region. The goal of the wiki is to take advantage of the incredible amount of collective knowledge in the ARIN community and put it to work for you.

In addition to the resources mentioned above, we’ve also developed a listing of trainers and consultants as well as a listing of providers who offer IPv6 services to aid you in the switch to IPv6. You can find the listing of hosting providers and trainers and consultants on our wiki.

Want to be listed as a hosting provider or trainer? Anyone can add to the wiki! Just send your name, preferred user name, and preferred email address (if different than the one you’re sending from) to webmaster@arin.net. Your account will be created within one business day and an email will be generated and sent to the email you provided asking you to set up your own password for your account. Once you have an account, you can add yourself to either listing. Now you’re ready to help others Get6!

If you’d prefer to spread the IPv6 word another way, we’re always on the lookout for guest bloggers and forward thinkers. Leave us a comment if you’re interested in contributing!

ARIN Public Policy Consultation Coming to San Diego on 9 February

By Einar Bohlin, Senior Policy Analyst, ARIN

It’s official: 2016 is off and running! We have a lot planned for this year, but we’re kicking things off with a Public Policy Consultation (PPC) in just a couple weeks. We hope you’ll join us at ARIN’s first PPC of 2016 during NANOG 66 in San Diego, California on 9 February from 9:30 AM – 11:00 AM PST.

ARIN PPC at NANOG 66

For those unfamiliar, the PPC is part of ARIN’s Policy Development Process (PDP); it is an open public discussion of number resource policy that absolutely anyone can attend (ARIN membership is not required).

The following draft policies will be discussed at the PPC as part of NANOG 66:

Visit https://www.arin.net/ppcnanog66 for more information, including how to register for this free event. Keep in mind that if you are already registered for NANOG 66, you do not need to register for the ARIN PPC separately. If you wish to attend only the ARIN PPC, you must register using the link above.

Can’t make it to San Diego? Remote participation is available and can be equally rewarding. Anyone can view the live transcript and webcast on the ARIN website throughout the meeting, and registered remote participants can submit questions and comments alongside in-person attendees and raise a virtual hand during straw polls.

We hope to see you there, either in-person or remotely!

The Promise of Connectivity at CES Means Nothing without IPv6

By Jeff Urbanchuk, Stanton Communications

For a few years now, we have been promised a bright future where connected devices all communicate with each other on the Internet of Things. If this year’s CES was any indication, the consumer technology industry is just about ready to deliver on that promise with a flood of new devices and products that will transform the way we interact with technology on a fundamental level.

The future certainly looks bright, but what isn’t mentioned in the keynotes and in booth pitches on the CES show floor is that the transformative effects of the Internet of Things will never be felt as long as device manufacturers, web content developers and consumer technology interests still operate on yesterday’s Internet.

The reality of the Internet’s current evolutionary state is known to every network engineer and IT professional from the largest ISP to the smallest start-up. In late 2015, ARIN, the American Registry for Internet Numbers, announced that they had exhausted their free pool of IPv4 number resources. This was an important announcement indicating the time had finally come to look beyond IPv4 to the future. To bridge the gap left by IPv4 exhaustion, consumer tech companies, service providers and websites must switch to IPv6, which will offer a near endless supply of IP addresses for the new Internet and the connected devices that wowed the 170,000 attendees at CES.

IPv6 Panel at CES 2016

Here’s the bottom line: IPv6 it isn’t a “feature” for a new product or a talking point on a marketing brochure. IPv6 is a requirement for every connected device on the market today.

This sounds fairly clear-cut to the casual observer. Unfortunately, this isn’t how IPv6 migration has been regarded by a large percentage of the consumer technology industry that is continuing to hold the adoption of IPv6 at arm’s length. That’s a problem that must be addressed before the IoT takes off and that’s why ARIN decided to take the IPv6 message right to the audiences that matter at CES.

Working with our contacts at the Consumer Technology Association, ARIN scheduled a pre-show panel discussion for Tuesday January 5th on IPv6 titled “Your Customers are on the New Internet. Are You?” On the panel were some of the best engineers working on IPv6 deployment today. The all-star line-up was anchored by ARIN’s president and CEO, John Curran, and included Paul Saab from Facebook, John Brzozowski from Comcast, Samir Vaidya from Verizon Wireless and Limor Schafman, from TIA. Moderating the panel was CTA’s own Brian Markwalter.

The room in the North Hall of the Las Vegas Convention Center was standing room only and ready to hear some compelling information on the Internet’s move to IPv6. Maybe there is some hope after all that the big guns in consumer tech finally “get it.”

Each of the panelists offered a good deal of data and statistics to support their call for IPv6 migration, but one of the standouts was one fact presented by Facebook’s Paul Saab. It’s this:

  • The normal router found in the average home has the capacity to connect to about 50 devices with IPv4.That same router with IPv6 could connect every single device known to man.

Imagine that for a moment – one router with enough capacity to connect a near endless stream of devices with IPv6. This is the key that will unlock an entire ecosystem of devices for the IoT and sustain the estimated 50 billion connected devices that Cisco estimates will be on the market by 2020.

Here are some other key takeaways from the panel:

  • IPv4 has exhausted and for the Internet to evolve, companies, products manufacturers and web hosting companies can either advance to IPv6 or stay in the past. In other words, if you aren’t moving to IPv6, your competitors are.
  • Comcast estimates that 97 percent of devices it sees are managed using only IPv6.
  • IPv6 is the connection method of choice for Facebook, with over 10 percent of the world’s users connecting to the service over IPv6.
  • Facebook also sees faster connections over IPv6 compared to IPv4, offering users the opportunity to connect to their content faster over rival services.
  • Comcast has deployed IPv6 100 percent across its network and its next generation of the X1 Entertainment OS will be built natively on IPv6.
  • Old concerns over the cost of IPv6 deployment had been largely rendered unnecessary. The cost now for an IPv6 testbed is nothing compared to the costs associated with catching up to the rest of the IPv6 enabled world.
  • IPv6 allows for end-to-end connections without the need to rely on CDN translation. That means companies have a direct connection to their customers.

The statistics shared by the panelists illustrate the unavoidable fact that IPv6 adoption and the march towards the new Internet are intertwined and inseparable.

The IPv6 panel at CES was a success, but more work needs to be done to spread the message that IPv6 is here to stay. It’s easy to sell the idea of a connected product at a show like CES. Who doesn’t want a home that is smarter than its occupants? Why not have a smartphone that connects to my wearable device, my computer and my car? The promise of the Internet of Things is one of convenience and that’s an easy sell for busy consumers looking to remove one more choice from their busy day. But all this promise of a connected future won’t amount to anything besides lip service if we don’t have a next generation Internet that can handle all of the connections and the flood of data it will generate.

ARIN will continue to spread the Get6 message to all who will hear it, but it is equally important that you – as a member of the Internet community – become an active participant. If you are reading this blog post, thank you. You’ve taken the first step. We now need you to take the next step by spreading the Get6 message to your colleagues and your online communities. Facebook, Verizon Wireless and Comcast are among those who have already begun to prepare for the New Internet. Are you?

 

IPv4 is depleted. Now what?

By Richard Jimmerson, Chief Information Officer, ARIN

It has been more than three months since ARIN’s free pool of IPv4 address space depleted, and we have seen a few interesting trends in the registration operation since then.

1. The waiting list for unmet requests has grown to over 200 organizations and the relative rate of incoming IPv4 free pool requests has decreased.

Since 24 September 2015 when we issued the last IPv4 address block from the free pool inventory, we still have some IPv4 requests coming in and the waiting list for unmet requests continues to grow. At the time of writing this blog, there were 242 organizations on the waiting list for unmet requests and it is expected to continue slowly growing.

2. There has been a steady increase in IPv6 request traffic since the months leading up to IPv4 free pool depletion.

Leading up to the September announcement of IPv4 free pool depletion there was a short-lived spike in IPv6 requests. The IPv6 request traffic was certainly heavier in the last six months of 2015 when compared to the first half of the year. We expect the number of IPv6 requests to increase steadily in 2016. We are already noticing more IPv6 inquiries coming from end-user organizations and ISPs through our interactions with them in the Registration Services Department.

3. There has been a steady increase in the number of IPv4 transfer requests.

2015 ARIN IPv4 Transfers

As expected, we experienced an increase in the number of transfers to specified recipients following depletion of the IPv4 free pool. You can see the increase in the included graphic here, but what is not readily apparent is the ongoing work in the background that will yield an even sharper increase in transfer request traffic in the coming months. We are receiving a large number of transfer pre-approval and related requests that will later result in a formal transfer request.

To many of you who regularly read this blog, we expect none of this is a surprise. To others, however, this is new information and they will be looking for information and guidance on these registration-related topics in 2016.

To help keep the community informed on registration trends this year, we will focus several of our blog posts on IPv4 transfers and IPv6 registration-related topics. We will share information about trends we are seeing and provide pointers we believe could be helpful to you. For example, we’ve been receiving questions like these that we’ll be answering throughout the year:

  • What’s happening with the IPv4 waiting list?
  • What are the first steps I need to take if I want to receive IPv4 address space from a specified recipient transfer?
  • How often can I receive IPv4 address space from a specified recipient transfer?
  • How much IPv6 address space can my organization request?
  • As an ISP, what size IPv6 blocks should I assign to customers/end-sites?
  • How does IPv6 network planning differ from IPv4 network planning?

Let us know if you have any other specific questions you’d like to see us address, and keep your eyes peeled for future posts related to IPv4 transfers and IPv6.

 

2015 Year in Review

By Nate Davis, Chief Operating Officer, ARIN

2015 was an exciting here at ARIN. While we are gearing up for 2016, I thought it would be interesting to recap this eventful year. I am fairly certain you heard that we ran out of IPv4 addresses in September. Even though we had been preparing (and informing the community) about this for years, it was a big deal for us when it happened. The day the our IPv4 address counter reached zero, was the day depletion really soaked in for many who have been tracking our inventory over the past decade.

ARIN IPv4 Free Pool Depletion

In 2015 alone we issued .44 /8 equivalents of IPv4 address space that accounted for the last dredges in the free pool. We saw articles about IPv4 depletion and the need for IPv6 in everything from the Wall Street Journal, Washington Post, NBC News, CBS News, BBC, Fortune, USA Today, The Next Web, PC World, Network Computing, and many more. Furthermore you took to social media to discuss and share with your networks the latest news about IP addressing in the region. But what about IPv6? We distributed 575 blocks of IPv6 address space year to date so far, which represents a 23% increase over the 466 IPv6 blocks issued last year. We expect to see these numbers continue to rise in the years to come.

We continued our educational outreach efforts, including the launch of Get6 which is focused on encouraging companies to IPv6-enable their websites. We also put in appearances at numerous shows throughout the year including but not limited to: CES, Grenada ICT Week, North American IPv6 Summit, Caribbean Telecommunications Union 25th Anniversary, South School on Internet Governance, CaribNOG, CANTO, Campus Technology, WISPAPALOOZA, Caribbean Internet Governance Forum, Open Networking Users Group, and Canadian ISP Summit. We packed up ARIN on the Road and took our one-day event to Florida, Montana, Illinois, New Jersey, Dominica, Halifax, and Ottawa. We also held Public Policy and Members Meetings in San Francisco and Montreal where attendees came together to discuss and set policies that will guide this community forward. This year four policies were implemented and added into the latest version of the Number Resource Policy Manual (NRPM), and eight proposals remain on the docket to continue to discuss in 2016.

2015 has been a banner year for user functionality, with five major new releases of ARIN Online and a host of new features and streamlining for our customers. Major technical milestones include the development and deployment of crucial security features like two-factor authentication, the automation of Internet number resource transfers within ARIN Online, and the satisfactory closure of ten suggestions as part of the ARIN Consultation and Suggestion Process (ACSP).

Throughout the year we encouraged community members to follow and participate in Internet Governance discussions especially in relation to the IANA Stewardship Transition. We continue to support the ongoing work to transition the IANA function to the larger global Internet community through the multistakeholder process.

All in all, thanks for a great 2015. Thanks for sharing your ideas and opinions, attending meetings, contributing on mailing lists, volunteering for committees, serving as mentors, and voting in elections. Also thank you to our elected volunteer representatives on the Board, Advisory Council, and NRO Number Council. We depend on the work of many volunteers to fulfill our mission, and we are confident that we would not be where we are today without the continuing efforts of people like you. Here’s to a successful and productive year ahead as well!

 

Your Customers are on the New Internet – Are You?

By Jennifer Bly, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator, ARIN

Your Customers are on the New Internet

Will you be one of the 150,000+ people expected to attend CES in a couple weeks? If so, make sure you plan to learn more about how the Internet is evolving while at the show. As part of the free conference track, industry experts from Facebook, Verizon Wireless, Comcast, ARIN, IPv6 Forum Israel, and the CTA itself are joining together to bring you a panel on the new Internet: Your Customers are on the New Internet – Are You?  With the Internet rapidly moving to IPv6, it’s impacting today’s increasingly connected consumer electronics equipment. You won’t want to miss this session to find out what these changes to the public Internet will mean for consumer electronics, the entertainment industry, and the emergence of the Internet of Things.

Tuesday, January 5

11:30 AM – 12:30 PM

LVCC, North Hall, Room N259

Your Customers on the New Internet – Are You?

The new Internet, built on IPv6, is the only way to reach the 30 billion new IoT devices and the next 1 billion people that will be connected. Learn how this shift will positively impact your business and your customers.

 


Moderator

Brian Markwalter

Sr. VP, Research & Standards, CTA


Panelists

John Curran

President and CEO, ARIN

Paul Saab

Software Engineer, Facebook

Samir Vaidya

Director, Device Technology, Verizon Wireless

John Brzozowski

Fellow and Chief IPv6 Architect, Comcast Cable

Limor Schafman

Chair Emeritus, IPv6 Forum Israel

Be sure to join us in Las Vegas at CES for this excellent panel!  In the meantime, for more information on where to begin with your IPv6 deployment, check out these resources: Get6, IPv6 Info Center, and our IPv6 Wiki

 

 

Christmas Gift Idea: Some IPv6 Experience

A holiday gift from the community to the community.

Guest Blog Post by Marco Hogewoning, External Relations Officer – Technical Advisor at the RIPE NCC

The holiday season is rapidly approaching and this year is coming to a close, another one done and another one that saw some great and wonderful and also unfortunately some sad moments.

One of those key moments was the depletion of the IPv4 pool in the ARIN region, which for some probably means the sad realisation that their business models will hit a growth barrier. Others celebrated it, with a smug I told you so face, as the moment where IPv6 is no longer optional but a requirement for a solid Internet-based business.

It was something we have seen coming and the Regional Internet Registries and countless businesses have been preparing for this moment for years. Where other regions such as APNIC, RIPE and LACNIC already depleted their pools and activated various austerity based IPv4 policies, we had the opportunity to learn from each other and share experiences on what to do when the final moment of imminent IPv4 depletion would be there.

The same goes for the deployment of IPv6, where countless businesses and governments, big and small, have started to activate it in their products and services. We have come a long way, and I am happy to see countries all across the globe are making such great progress in IPv6 deployment, with the US market not that far behind the world’s IPv6 leader: Belgium.

At the same time we must not forget that a lot of people still face the challenge of starting an IPv6 project, scratching their heads on where to start and looking for the secret recipe that made others successfully deploy IPv6 for millions of customers.

IGF 2015 IPv6 BPF Session

As part of this year’s inter-sessional work for the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), a group of RIR staff and community members set out to collect and document those experiences. We’ve asked countless people from all stakeholders to tell us their stories and share what they thought were the secret to their success.

After a great workshop during the 2015 IGF in Brazil and a public comment period, the resulting best practice document Creating an Enabling Environment for IPv6 Adoption document has now been published as output of the IGF.

From the start we decided that it should not be another technical description of IPv6, many of those exist already and your favourite bookstore is likely to have a few really good books with a level of in-depth knowledge that we would have never been able to write up in the few months we had.

Instead we focussed on coordination and motivation, describing successful stories of IPv6 task forces, business and governments coordinating their IPv6 deployment and triggering in a domino effect where the success of one party offers motivation for others to join and do the same.

Above all, what is important, is to know you are not alone out there. You might be one of the lucky ones who have IPv6 already done, you might be somebody under pressure to start the project. We can all learn from each other, so why not give somebody the most valuable gift of all? Knowledge.

We got some of it together, but please keep adding yours. Share your experience and knowledge on IPv6 with others using the RIR blogs, NOG meetings and join your local IPv6 task force, also especially when you have already deployed.

Consider it a gift from the community to the community. The IGF outcome document can be downloaded here from the IGF website.

 

Marco_Hogewoning112x165Marco Hogewoning is External Relations Officer – Technical Advisor with the RIPE NCC. As part of the External Relations team, he helps lead the RIPE NCC’s engagement with membership, the RIPE community, government, law enforcement and other Internet stakeholders.

 

 

 

 

 

How to Request IPv6 from ARIN in 5 Easy Steps or Less

By Leslie Nobile, Senior Director of Global Registry Knowledge, ARIN

By now you know you need IPv6, and you’re ready to take the plunge. Fortunately, we’ve made requesting IPv6 super easy. Getting IPv6 is so easy in fact, you might wonder why you didn’t do it sooner. The process you need to follow will vary based on whether you already have resources from ARIN or not, but in both cases, it’s very straightforward and detailed extensively in policy. Breaking it down, here’s what you need to do.

Getting Your First ARIN IPv6 Allocation or Assignment

I already have IPv4 from ARIN (or its predecessor). I need IPv6!

If you have an IPv4 allocation or assignment from ARIN, obtaining IPv6 couldn’t be easier.

  1. Log into ARIN Online and go to MANAGE & REQUEST RESOURCES
  2. Select the organization you want to request IPv6 for
  3. Complete the IPv6 assignment or allocation request form
  4. Submit!

ARIN will follow up with you within two business days to process your request.

If you obtained IPv4 from ARIN (or its predecessor) but do not have an ARIN Online account, you must first create one and link it to a Point of Contact record (POC) and an Organization Identifier (Org ID) using these instructions.

I do NOT have IPv4 from ARIN (or its predecessor) and I  need IPv6 for:

My organization (End-user)

In order to qualify for a minimum initial IPv6 end-user assignment, you must either:

  • Be (or plan to be) IPv6 multi-homed using an assigned valid global Autonomous System Number (ASN)
  • Have a network that makes active use of a minimum of 2000 IPv6 addresses or 200 /64 subnets (or will within a year), or
  • Justify why IPv6 addresses from an ISP or other LIR are unsuitable

My organization and its customers (ISP)

In order to qualify for a minimum initial IPv6 Internet Service Provider (ISP) allocation, you must either:

  • Qualify for an IPv4 ISP allocation under current policy
  • Intend to immediately multi-home, or
  • Provide a reasonable technical justification, including a plan showing projected assignments for one, two, and five year periods, with a minimum of 50 assignments within five years

Before requesting an initial IPv6 ISP allocation, determine how much IPv6 you need based on how many sites you have:

how much v6

If you meet the requirements above, follow these steps to request your first allocation or assignment:

  1. Create an ARIN Online account and link it to a Point of Contact record (POC) and an Organization Identifier (Org ID) using these instructions
  2. Log into ARIN Online and go to MANAGE & REQUEST RESOURCES
  3. Select the organization you want to request IPv6 for
  4. Complete the IPv6 assignment or allocation request form
  5. Submit!

ARIN will follow up with you within two business days to process your request.

Visit the ARIN website for full requirement/request details for IPv6 assignments and allocations. Congrats on deciding now is the time to get your IPv6 block!

 

To Squat or not to Squat?

Cathy Aronson’s crash course in ISPs adding to RFC 1918 space with unrouted IPv4 address blocks.

Guest blog post by by Cathy Aronson

Owl

Recently I got an email from a colleague at a sizable ISP. He said his boss wanted to know whether it was safer to use 22.0.0.0/8 or 30.0.0.0/8 for additional RFC1918 address space.

I have to say I was shocked. I thought maybe I didn’t understand him. I rewrote back, “Are you saying that you are going to use 22.0.0.0/8 and 30.0.0.0/8 as additional RFC 1918 space?” His answer, “Yes”. I was shocked. I did not know this was happening. Certainly this had to be an isolated incident? It is an incredibly bad idea for so many reasons that I’ll talk about as I go on here.

Since I was on my way to IETF 94 in Yokohama the next week I decided to look into this matter and see who is doing this. A number of people talked candidly to me about this situation.

Before I left on my trip I did some googling to see what I could find out there on the net about this. I have attached some links below. It amused me that a large number of folks out there are seeing these addresses in their traceroutes and thinking it’s government surveillance. Of course that’s not at all the case. The not so amusing part of my googling was that there is a lot of this squatting happening out there on the net.

It turns out there are a LOT of organizations considering squatting on other organizations address space. Some of them include large ISPs, cable providers, and large enterprises.. The blocks used are not just 22.0.0.0/8 and 30.0.0.0/8 but there are discussions (see links below) of companies using 7.0.0.0/8 and 25.0.0.0/8.

I talked to another colleague at a large enterprise that is currently using 25.0.0.0/8. He heard that the UK Government (the 25.0.0.0/8 block belongs to the UK Ministry of Defense) may soon sell their rights to this block and it will be globally routed. There are folks trying to persuade the UK government to not sell, but it worth a tidy sum of money.

So why is this a bad idea? It is a bad idea because someone else holds rights to these blocks. If the rightful entity decides to route them or transfer them to someone else who then routes them, then everyone has a problem. The network that is squatting will not be able to get to the legitimate users of the block. The legitimate user of the block will not be able to get to a sizable number of eyeballs on those squatting ISPs’ networks.

How likely is this problem to occur? I would think that due to IPv4 address exhaustion it will become likely that some of these blocks will end up in the global routing table. For a while IPv4 address blocks will be worth quite a bit of money and it will be tempting for owners of such blocks to transfer them to whoever is willing to pay the most.

When a block like this becomes routed globally any ISP who is squatting on the space has to quickly renumber a large number of devices. This is not a trivial amount of work. That time would be better spent connecting all these internal devices via IPv6.   At least one ISP I talked to said they were using some squat space as an interim step until all the devices could do IPv6. I am not sure why others are not spending their time and energy deploying IPv6, but they are setting themselves up for a major crisis in the future.

Links of discussions of this squatting:

These are about 7.0.0.0/8:

http://www.dslreports.com/forum/r25679029-Why-is-my-first-hop-to-a-DoD-assigned-IP-address

http://www.dslreports.com/forum/r26519598-First-hop-to-DoD-in-Ohio

http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread761697/pg1

These are about 25.0.0.0/8:

http://android.stackexchange.com/questions/11388/are-tmobile-using-bogus-dod-ip-addresses-bogons

http://www.dslreports.com/forum/r27324698-LTE-access-early

https://www.reddit.com/r/conspiracy/comments/1sql0i/if_you_have_an_android_you_can_find_out_where/

These are about 30.0.0.0/8:

http://blog.erratasec.com/2013/12/dod-address-space-its-not-conspiracy.html#.VkAG28qTnL0

Some other providers who are doing this:

http://hardforum.com/archive/index.php/t-1776268.html

https://www.reddit.com/r/networking/comments/1ylnr8/ipv4_squat_space/

 

Cathy AronsonCathy Aronson has been an active ARIN participant since 1998. Cathy was also on the original ASO Address Council.  Cathy acts as an advocate for address policy by volunteering to do many presentations to get involvement of other communities such as NANOG.  She feels that cross pollination of ARIN with other RIRs as well as ARIN with other networking groups is essential to making good address policy. Cathy was most recently a network engineer at Cascadeo Corporation where she helped manage addressing and routing for a number of clients.

Previously, Cathy was a member of the technical staff at Packet Design, where she was responsible for operational aspects of their Internet scaling projects. Earlier Cathy was at the @Home Network where she was responsible for routing and IP addressing. She began her career at Merit, Inc. where she worked on the NSFNET Backbone. Cathy designed and implemented the OSI/CLNP for the Energy Sciences Network. Although OSI/CLNP was never widely deployed, the experience has given greater insight into addressing and scaling issues. Cathy joined the Advisory Council in June 1998 first serving an interim six-month term before being re-elected later that year to a three-year term. She was re-elected to the AC in 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2013. Her term expires 31 December 2016.

 

 

Multistakeholder vs. Multilateral – WSIS +10 Consultations at IGF

By Cathy Handley, Executive Director of Government Affairs and Public Policy, ARIN

Day one at the Internet Governance Forum focused on the UN Consultation currently underway to review the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) outcomes. In 2005, when the original WSIS outcomes were accepted, they included the call for a ten-year overall review in order to take stock of the progress that has been made and to address gaps and areas for continued focus.   The two UN co-facilitators, ambassadors from Latvia and United Arab Emirates, led the consultation on the on the draft outcome document. This report will be delivered to the United Nations General Assembly following a high level meeting on 14 – 15 December 2015.

IGF RIR booth

The Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) Public Affairs Coordination Group poses in front of the RIR booth at IGF 2015. From left to right: Chris Buckridge, Cathy Handley, Vymala Thuron, Andres Piazza, and Pablo Hinojosa

 

Many topics were discussed in the consultations, but one in particular received a lot of attention and focused on the use of two terms: multistakeholder and multilateral.

In the realm of Internet governance, we use the term multistakeholder often and with great pride. The term multistakeholder defines the heart of the Internet eco-system. It reflects the commitment to an open dialog between governments, private sector organizations, civil society, and the technical community to shape the growth of the Internet and the policies that support and protect it. Sadly, it was noted by one commenter that this term is used only in the past tense in the current draft.

In other places, the term multilateral is used. In governmental terms, multilateral is used to describe discussion or agreements between multiple governments. It does not provide for the inclusion of other communities that have been part of the multistakeholder process. Where multilateral is used instead of multistakeholder, it has raised concerns with many participants who believe that the statements should include a wider number of players.

It will be interesting to see if there is an update to the WSIS +10 draft to reassert the need for multistakeholder participation. For more information, the WSIS +10 website has more information about the event and the IGF has posted the transcripts of the WSIS + 10 Consultation online.

 

Creating an Enabling Environment for IPv6 Adoption

By Aaron Hughes, ARIN Board Member

For the past 8 months I’ve been helping to establish a well-planned document for the Internet Governance Forum Best Practices Forum (IGF BPF). I was asked to lend my expertise to help pull together a guide for non-technical audiences that addresses the challenges enterprises, governments, public and private partnerships can face when planning an IPv6 deployment at the global, regional and local levels.

IGF IPv6 BPF

While IPv6 is not in its infancy, interoperability and feature parity are still in progress, so I think one of the IPv6 deployment challenges we see is related to working with vendors to resolve these issues. In addition, public, unique addressing behind the firewall at the Enterprise is new for all of us and use cases to drive IPv6 architecture are still in progress.

While outreach and education have been a priority, there’s still a large portion of the population who have not been reached, fear change, or simply don’t fully understand the significance of IPv4 runout.

The document being developed for this forum will begin to meet these needs by detailing how to build the right kind of environment for the adoption of IPv6. It is intended to be an easy to understand guide for anyone technical or non-technical to assist with steps necessary to adopt IPv6.

The process to develop the IPv6 BPF so far has consisted of community discussion, resource collection, surveys, a session during the 2015 IGF, and finally the production of an outcome document. We’ve had interesting conversations to date, including the session at IGF this week where I was part of the panel covering the work.

Thus far, the document has been a great success. We’ve not only received a great deal of comments to help further evolve this living document, but also received verbal community support in our panel session at the IGF. I look forward to working with this expanding community and enriching the document with their experiences.  As the document states:

The eventual transition to IPv6 will only be successful when all stakeholders, as a community, are all moving together towards this shared goal at the same time, in a collaborative manner. It is not useful if one organization alone adopts IPv6 if the majority of the devices on the Internet keep on using IPv4. The long-term sustainability of the network, and success of the Internet to accommodate IPv6, depends on getting more organisations to adopt IPv6. IPv6 adoption often involves multistakeholder, collaborative, and community-wide efforts.

The draft IGF IPv6 BPF is still open for your comment through Friday, 13 November, so I encourage you to review the best practices and contribute your questions or concerns. We will address these in the weeks to follow with the ultimate goal of publishing this set of experiences and practices from multiple stakeholders around the world.

 

Let the Internet Grow

By Jennifer Bly, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator, ARIN

From the first email sent in 1971 to today, the Internet has grown astronomically. Statistics show there are more than three billion Internet users worldwide at this moment, and that number is only growing. In the midst of recent headlines that Facebook alone attracts more than 1 billion active users a day, it’s amazing just how large that truly is. Clearly, the Internet’s phenomenal success has made it a cornerstone of our daily lives. However, more than three decades ago when IPv4 was introduced, no one could have predicted its universal adoption.

Since ARIN announced IPv4 runout earlier this year, we’re fully in the IPv4 depletion zone.  For a sustainable Internet, the only way forward is to deploy IPv6. Check out this infographic that shows how Internet growth and IP address depletion have gone hand in hand for the past 34 years.


ARIN Infographic Internet Growth and IP Address Depletion

 

As more and more companies are faced with either having to wait (and wait, and wait, and wait some more) for IPv4 address space or rely on the transfer market, forward thinkers will get their IPv6 blocks and accelerate their IPv6 transition plans. Are you one of these forward thinkers? Let us know. We want to help share your story about how you are making strides toward IPv6.

 

IANA Stewardship Transition Update from ICANN 54

By John Sweeting, ARIN CRISP Team & NRO NC Member

Last week I attended ICANN 54 in Dublin, Ireland. It was very busy week with several meetings and events scheduled every day. As a member of the Consolidated RIR IANA Stewardship Proposal (CRISP) Team and the Number Resource Organization Number Council (NRO NC), my focus for the week was attending meetings dealing with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Stewardship Transition.

ICANN 54

I attended most of the meetings held by the (IANA) Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG) as well as the ones held by the Cross Community Working Group on Enhancing ICANN Accountability (CCWG). This being my first ICANN meeting in several years, I was impressed with the organization and ease of navigating the many sessions that were held during the week. There was good progress made during the week and hopes are high of implementing the transition on time looking at the end of September 2016. During the public forum on Thursday, October 22 the Chairs of the three operational communities (Numbers, Protocols and Names) read the following joint statement:

As part of the IANA Stewardship transition process, each Operational Community―protocol parameters, numbers, name―has been working to develop their proposals and to plan for the transition. But there are some areas where we have had to coordinate. For instance, the communities have worked on together in the area of IPR [Intellectual Property Rights] for IANA Trademark and “IANA.ORG” domain.

I wanted to convey a message from the chairs [and leaders] from the names, the protocols and the numbers communities: we have collaborated and continue to collaborate to ensure the consistency of the transition effort.

We are now nearing the implementation stage of the effort, and the three operational communities are committed to working together to develop an implementation plan based on our proposal for the IPR, and any other areas in the proposal which need coordination among the three operational communities.

The full list of CCWG-Accountability sessions can be found by clicking on the Accountability tab on the ICANN 54 Dublin meeting page. Observing the spirit of cooperation and the determination of the involved groups and community members there is a good feeling throughout the communities that the transition can be completed on time. For those interested it is certainly worth your time to browse though the meeting materials available on the ICANN 54 website. Of course, the week was not all about meetings and work as there was some time available to enjoy the pubs and nightlife of Dublin. There was a great networking event, That Night in Dublin, held on Monday October 19 that was a lot of fun.

ICANN 55 is scheduled for March 5-10, 2016 in Marrakech.

 

Q&A with NANOG 65 & ARIN 36 Postel Fellows

By Omar Eissa and Razan Abdalla

Every year, the Postel Scholarship Program provides funding for network operators from developing nations to attend back-to-back NANOG and ARIN meetings. The scholarship honors the life and work of Jon Postel, a significant contributor to the development of Internet standards and protocols. This year’s winners were Omar Eissa from Egypt and Razan Abdalla from Sudan and they were both kind enough to answer some questions about their time at the recent NANOG 65 and ARIN 36 meetings.

Razan and Omar

Omar Eissa from Egypt

Briefly introduce yourself

My name is Omar Eissa. I am a master student at RWTH, Aachen, Germany. I am specialised in field of Networks security. Before that, I have been working as an IP Problem Expert at Orange Business Services, Egypt. I have worked on improving security features of covert channel protocols and I have some professional certificates in field networks’ routing.

What have you liked about the NANOG and ARIN meetings?

People at NANOG and ARIN were too friendly. Everyone shared their experience; I met different people from different backgrounds. I met people from 4 different continents. There were entrepreneurs, who introduced new companies into the market and became pioneers in their field. I saw young people who introduced new tools to be used by the community to improve the networks’ future. They were community, like family where everyone is meeting, having fun, sharing personal experience, talking about technical stuff and discussing their vision for an improved, better version of computer networks. I liked how lots of these people were modest, shared knowledge and happily helped you if they could. I had the chance to affect the future of the Internet by hearing about new policies, discussing them with their creators, and seeing how others refuted them. I had also the chance to vote on them.

What is the most valuable thing you’ve learned?

That there is a big community where I belong and this community is welcoming, sharing knowledge, refuting and helping improve any new idea for the sake of a better future. The most valuable thing for me is the experience of meeting all of those people and enlarging my network on both social and technical levels.

How will you use what you’ve learned back home?

NANOG and ARIN just inspire. I will work on developing and improving some ideas provided in the meetings to improve my community and maybe one day, I can give a presentation at NANOG or discuss one of the policies at ARIN.

Would you recommend others to come to the NANOG and ARIN meetings? And why?

Yes, I do recommend attending the meetings to have a broader view about field of networks, how different entities work, their latest achievements and to get real life experiences of people working at such entities.

 

Razan Abdalla from Sudan

Briefly introduce yourself

My name is Razan Abdalla. I am from Sudan. I graduated from University of Khartoum with a bachelor’s degree in computer sciences. I have completed my masters in networks and computer architecture. I was fascinated about networks during a course on the semi final year. I believe this area is well worth delving into.

What have you liked about the NANOG and ARIN meetings?

My impressions about NANOG 65 and ARIN 36 meetings are that the atmosphere is lively and dynamic. I met great people. They were friendly and open and supportive. The general session topics were powerful and brilliantly delivered. I fully enjoyed the one week event.

What is the most valuable thing you’ve learned?

The most valuable thing firstly was meeting people who are corporate leaders in the network industry and learning from experts and building up relationships with peers. Secondly amongst all those men, there were a few women paving their way through the industry. Seeing successful women was very inspiring. They encouraged me to pursue and continue in the same field.

How will you use what you’ve learned back home?

NANOG and ARIN have opened my eyes to new insights, and I am looking forward to participate in our local events in Sudan (SdNog). I would recommend NANOG meetings as a shiny opportunity that all the networking society should seize to get exposure and to meet with experts sharing their knowledge and experiences.

Would you recommend others to come to the NANOG and ARIN meetings? And why?

Absolutely, I recommend others to attend NANOG and ARIN. It’s a rewarding experience worth a try and extremely valuable.

 

Congrats to Omar and Razan! If you are interested in applying for the next Postel Scholarship more information is available on NANOG’s website. Engineers (Network Builders), Operational and Infrastructure Support Personnel, along with Educators and Trainers are all invited to apply. By early summer 2016, the application process will open again for the fall NANOG and ARIN meetings in Dallas, Texas scheduled for October 2016.