Tag Cloud:

Give Your Input on the IANA Stewardship Transition

By John Curran, President and CEO, ARIN

The community involved in making sure Internet numbering runs smoothly wants to make sure it continues to run smoothly for years to come.  Since the news broke that the global Internet Community was to develop a proposal for stewardship of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) so that it could be contractually released from US government, there has been a lot of talk about how to proceed.

Here in the ARIN region we’ve been keeping you up to date with developments and now are gathering your input on the work that needs to be done in our region to develop a contribution to the proposal.  At our ARIN 34 Public Policy and Members meeting we held a session on the IANA Stewardship Transition Planning Process.  See the footage from this discussion:



IANA Oversight Survey

After the meeting we opened a survey to gather input from the ARIN community to help prepare for regional submission to the IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG) – the multistakeholder group tasked to coordinate the production of a global proposal for the transition of IANA oversight. This survey is an important way for you to give your feedback regarding the future oversight of the IANA functions. It consists of only 10 questions and a field for comments in case you’d like to elaborate on your answers.

Take the survey now!

IANA Stewardship Transition Process Mailing List

After the survey closes on Monday, we’ll aggregate your responses and share the results with the goal of consolidating all community input by December 2014.  We will discuss the results as a community via a new, public mailing list – iana-tranistion@arin.net – created to facilitate open community discussion in the region regarding the IANA Stewardship Transition planning process.

We recommend you subscribe this IANA-transition mailing list to both follow and contribute to the discussion.


IANA Stewardship Transition Discussion


The next step will be to further consolidate ARIN input with the input of the other four Regional Internet Registries in early 2015 with the goal of coming to a complete submission on behalf of the Number Resource Organization (NRO) to the ICG.

If you want to make sure your voice is heard as a part of the numbers community, please take the time to fill out the survey and subscribe to iana-transition.


Vote Now in 2014 ARIN Elections

By Susan Hamlin, Direction of Communications and Member Services, ARIN

ARIN 2014 ElectionsThe polls are open in this year’s ARIN Board and Advisory Council elections.  If you’re a designated member representative (DMR), you are the person responsible for casting a vote on behalf of your organization.  Note than voter eligibility was set 60 days out from the start of the election, on 11 August 2014.   The election began on 9 October 2014 and will stay open through Sunday, 19 October at 3 PM EDT.

Voting in elections is the main responsibility and benefit of ARIN membership, so make sure you take advantage of this opportunity to shape ARIN leadership.  Each ARIN member organization may cast one vote, so all votes count equally, and your participation is encouraged.  Good voter turnout is a statistic we hope to hold up!

Not sure who to vote for? 

This election, there are 2 seats open on the Board and 7 seats open on the Advisory Council.  You can watch each candidate’s speech, given at ARIN 34 last week, by clicking on their name.

Board of Trustees

Timothy Denton, The Windermere Group

Bernadette Lewis, Caribbean Telecommunications Union

John Sweeting, Time Warner Cable

Bill Woodcock, Packet Clearing House

Advisory Council

Dan Alexander, Comcast Cable

Kevin Blumberg, The Wire Inc

Mike Burns, IPTrading

Andrew Dul, 8 Continents Networks LLC

Robert Duncan, Merit Network

David Farmer, University of Minnesota

Nick Guy, Noel Communications Inc.

David Huberman, Microsoft Corporation

Timothy Kaufman, Net Access LLC

L Sean Kennedy, XO Communications

Leif Sawyer, General Communications, Inc. 

Chris Tacit, Tacit Law

For more background on the candidates, check out their bio and/or statements of support.

Need instructions on how to cast your vote?

To get a full overview of the elections process and the specifics on how to vote, just watch this video:

More information about ARIN elections is available at our Election Headquarters, and as always feel free to ask us if you have any questions. Drop us an email at info@arin.net.



ARIN 34 Members Meeting Daily Recap

By Jennifer Bly, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator, ARIN

ARIN 34 Daily Recap It’s hard to believe ARIN 34 is already over. Today wrapped up the final of day of our Public Policy and Members Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland. Thanks to those of you joined us onsite and remotely. Here’s a quick version of what happened during today’s meeting.

This morning we began with a warm welcome to attendees, and we heard updates from the Number Resource Organization (NRO) on current activities and objectives. Then each ARIN department head shared about their respective work; Mark Kosters discussed engineering, Susan Hamlin gave the update on Communications and Member Services, Erin Alligood spoke about Human Resources and Administration, Val Winkelman gave an update from the Financial Services Department, and Leslie Nobile spoke about Registration Services.

Bill Darte and Stacy Hughes ARIN 34Advisory Council Chair, John Sweeting, gave the AC Report, thanking both Bill Darte and Stacy Hughes for their long time service on the ARIN Advisory Council. Next, Treasurer, Paul Andersen, gave the financial report and ARIN CEO followed up with a status update on the ARIN Free Structure review. Lastly, Board Chair, Vint Cerf, delivered the Board of Trustees Report.

The day concluded with a time for participants to speak during an open microphone session. Several community members asked questions and provided interesting comments, suggestions, and observations.

The full meeting report will be posted soon on our ARIN 34 Meeting Page where you can now already find meeting materials.  Additionally, you can also find all the slides that were presented during the Public Policy and Members Meeting yesterday and today at:

The winners of our two $100 ThinkGeek gift certificates for using the #ARIN34 hashtag on Twitter are @hajett and @crackmacs. Congrats!

Now that you’ve have the info on ARIN 34, make sure to save the date for both our next Public Policy Consultation and Meeting:

ARIN Public Policy Consultation at NANOG 63

2-4 February 2015 – San Antonio, Texas

ARIN 35 Public Policy and Members Meeting

12-15 April 2015 – San Francisco, California


ARIN 34 Public Policy Meeting Daily Recap

By Jennifer Bly, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator, ARIN

ARIN 34 Daily RecapARIN’s 34th Public Policy and Members Meeting arrived in the Charm City to hold an open discussion of Internet number resource policies.  Lots of lively conversations ensued today, and more will follow tomorrow.  In case you weren’t with us here in Baltimore, Maryland or online today, here’s a quick recap about what happened along with some info on how YOU can participate in the meeting tomorrow.

We discussed a whopping 10 policies on day one of ARIN 34 including:

Recommended Draft Policy:

Draft Policies:

ARIN 34 Public Policy and Members Meeting

At the start of the day, first time attendees got up to speed on all things ARIN with an orientation breakfast.  Then we jumped right into the public policy meeting with a report on IPv6 IAB/IETF activities from the most recent Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) meeting.  Next, a policy implementation and experience report reviewed current policies and provided feedback to the community.  Before heading into policy discussion, the Advisory Council Chair presented on-docket proposals.  After lunch, we heard a speech from each Board of Trustees and Advisory Council candidate before the polls opened and voting began.  The current and future software development update took a look at how ARIN engineering evaluates and prioritizes new projects.  Last but not least, an open microphone session closed out the day.

Perhaps the hottest feature today was the session on IANA Stewardship Transition Planning Process. ARIN President John Curran explained the current situation and presented ideas about how the ARIN community can contribute to the process.  There was talk about how to compile information from the ARIN community and RIR community as a whole to provide the IANA Coordination Group (ICG).  You can still share your feedback on the proposed process here, whether we need a new or existing ARIN mailing list to discuss these issues, and on questions for inclusion in the community survey that will open next week.

If you want to reference something you heard at the public policy meeting, slides from today’s presentations are already up online. Soon to follow, webcast archives, transcripts, and summary notes will posted as soon as they are available.

Do you tweet? Make sure to use the #ARIN34 hashtag for a chance to win a $100 ThinkGeek gift certificate.  Tomorrow afternoon we’ll be awarding one prize for most informative or entertaining tweet using #ARIN34 and another prize for the tweet with the most retweets using #ARIN34.

Whether you are member of ARIN or not, you are welcome to participate in the Members Meeting portion of ARIN 34 that begins at 9 AM EDT Friday morning.  Remote participation information is available on our ARIN 34 site.  Plus check back on Team ARIN at meeting’s end for another daily recap.


Current Status of Phase 4 of the IPv4 Countdown Plan

By Leslie Nobile, Director of Registration Services, ARIN

ARIN Team Review in Progress

ARIN has implemented Phase 4 of our IPv4 Countdown Plan, and as a result, our response time for IPv4 requests has increased from our organizational goal of two business days. We acknowledge that this situation has caused some frustration in the community, and we are making adjustments to our IPv4 request procedures in an effort to improve response time.

But the first question is what changed in Phase 4, and why?

First – Phase 4 requires “team review” for all IPv4 requests. This allows us to ensure all organizations are being reviewed under the same set of requirements. By having at least two analysts review each new IPv4 request (and responses to existing IPv4 requests), we have additional verification that each is handled in accordance with policy.

Second – Phase 4 also requires processing of all new IPv4 requests (and responses to existing IPv4 requests) in the order in which they were received. Because multiple organizations will be vying for the limited number of available IPv4 prefixes, we want to make sure our processes are fair and equitable, and that organizations with valid and documented requests receive sequential access to IPv4 free pool resources.

How does team review work?

  • Our team review process involves four analysts.
  • Three analysts are assigned to review approximately 30 tickets per day, starting with the oldest tickets first. These analysts conduct a preliminary review of each and record their conclusions, action items, and any other necessary information.
  • One senior analyst is dedicated to reviewing all of these initial assessments and providing a response to the customer in the order received.
  • Because the prep work has already been done by the three analysts who are conducting preliminary reviews, this analyst can typically respond very quickly throughout the day, which helps to ensure requests are processed as quickly as possible.

What changes have been made to help improve response time?

First, all IPv4 requests that have provided everything necessary for an approval (including officer attestation) will be processed in the order they were received independent of in-progress IPv4 requests. This is expected to cut the overall time required to complete an IPv4 request by several business days.

Second, we’ve removed all requests that would be filled from a reserved block (micro-allocations, IPv6-transition blocks) as well as /24 requests from the IPv4 team review queue.   Because requests filled from a reserve don’t come from our general-use inventory, there’s no need to team review them until we near depletion of those reserved blocks.

We hope these temporary changes will improve our response time and allow us to quickly get back to our two-business day turnaround on IPv4 requests.


IPv6 in Gotham City: Interop New York 2014

By Sean Hopkins, Communications and Technical Writer, ARIN

Interop BoothThis week, ARIN trekked north to the wilds to Manhattan for Interop New York. Surrounded by networking gurus and cloud specialists, we were pleased, but hardly surprised, to see that IPv6 awareness has never been higher. Most passersby had already requested an IPv6 address block for testing purposes, and many were fully deploying it across their networks. Major roadblocks appear few and far between, and many organizations were simply waiting for their upstream providers to turn on IPv6 for them, or for their IPv4 allocations to run out.

With nothing major getting in the way of IPv6 deployment, many eyes have turned to the dwindling pool of IPv4 remaining in the ARIN region, which, at the time of this posting, lies at a minute 0.66 /8 equivalents: down five percent from the beginning of Interop, and down nearly 50 percent since Interop Las Vegas ended in April of this year. With IPv4 depletion reaching new levels of imminence, isn’t it about time you got your hands on some IPv6? Just visit ARIN’s resource request section and see just how easy it can be to get your initial allocation or assignment. Once you are ready to get your feet wet, check out our IPv6 Wiki for helpful advice, informative presentations, and real-world IPv6 adoption stories.

Several of our visitors had questions specific to the policies in our Number Resource Policy Manual (NRPM) or the fees outlined on our fee schedule page. Keep in mind that ARIN policies and fees are set by the ARIN community (hint: that’s you!) so if you have any improvements in mind for either of them, now is a great time to get involved! ARIN’s next Public Policy and Members Meeting is next Thursday and Friday in Baltimore, MD. If you can’t join us in person, fear not! ARIN 34 proceedings will be webcast with a live transcript and chat functionality for remote participants.

There’s never been a better time to get up to speed on IPv6 and the policies in use by ARIN and its community. Learn about the many ways you can participate in ARIN and the Policy Development Process here. If you have any questions, feel free to email us at info@arin.net.

ARIN Public Policy Discussions are heading to Baltimore

By Einar Bohlin, Senior Policy Analyst, ARIN

It has been a busy summer, and things show no sign of slowing in the world of the ARIN Policy Development. Soon you will have two opportunities to take part in the discussion of 10 policy proposals.

Your first chance will be during the Public Policy Consultation (PPC) at NANOG 62 on 7 October 2014 from 9:30 AM – 1:00 PM EDT.


Full calendar on the 7th? How do things look on the 9th? You can join us for the ARIN 34 Public Policy Meeting, from 9:00 AM – 5:00 PM EDT.


Can’t make it to Baltimore? Participating online can be equally rewarding. Anyone can view the live transcript and webcast on the ARIN website throughout the meeting, and registered remote participants can submit questions and comments alongside in-person attendees and raise a virtual hand during straw polls.

Full details about remote participation are available on the meeting websites.

I hope you will plan on joining us and add your voice to the discussion.


Build Your Own IPv6 Lab

Get your hands dirty. Playing with IPv6 can be the best way learn it. Jeffrey L. Carrell lays out how you can build an IPv6 lab from the comfort of your own home for no more than a few dollars.

Guest Blog Post by Jeffrey L. Carrell

IPv6 is called the new Internet protocol. However, it’s been running on the Internet since 1999, so it’s really not so new, it’s just that not a lot of networks have implemented it as of yet. The challenge is that it is different from what we are all used to working with. It’s a bigger number: 128 bits compared to IPv4’s 32 bits. It has colons instead of periods (ok, dots for us diehard networking folks).  It has all new routing protocol components. And on, and on. But, it has WAY MORE possible addresses than IPv4! The theory is, we should never run out in our lifetimes! But, it is different.

So, how do you learn about IPv6 if your company is not implementing IPv6? How do you afford the equipment that is capable of running IPv6? More importantly, should you spend your own money and time to learn about IPv6 if there are no other compelling reasons or funding? The answer: YES, you should learn it on your own! A professional technologist should realize that investing in yourself is important and generally does payoff in the future.  How much are you willing to invest, money wise? How about very little (and I mean ‘little’ as in a few bucks)?

For a small investment of a computer (which you probably already have), a free virtualization application, a free full-blown routing application, an Internet connection (even free WiFi at the coffee shop will work), $5.00 USD investment for an IPv6 tunnel account, and free or evaluation versions of client operating systems; you can build a sophisticated lab and learn IPv6 just as effectively as if you had invested a lot more money.

The platform I’d recommend consists of a single computer with 8+ GB ram, 200MB hard disk, dual-core or better processor, one or more networking interfaces, Oracle’s VirtualBox, VyOS (routing software), Freenet6 account and software (IPv6 tunnel service), client OS’s such as a Linux platform and/or Microsoft Windows evaluation versions, and an Internet connection that is IPv4 only. With this as a base system platform, you can also add external equipment and build a larger lab environment.

The purpose here is to “play” with IPv6. What I have found not only for myself, but for many others who I’ve had in IPv6 training classes, only reading about IPv6 does not provide adequate knowledge or the hands-on experience that leads to the actual learning of IPv6. You need to see the configuration components; you need to look at the packets with a protocol analyzer; you need to try different configuration scenarios. The doing will drive home the learning!

You can create your own IPv6 lab environment with just about any option to what I’ve outlined above. Any VM application will work, many routers and/or routing applications will work, and there are a few choices in choosing an IPv6 tunnel provider. My personal goal was to find the combination that didn’t require a lot of money or special hardware, and didn’t require specific types of Internet connectivity (e.g. you’re not required to have a static IPv4 address, generally the way home Internet services is provided). Another major aspect of this IPv6 lab system, is to have real IPv6 Internet connectivity over an IPv4 only connection, which means you can actually use IPv6 to communicate to the outside world. You can even configure a client VM to not have any IPv4 at all! I have tested this system at various WiFi hotspots, friends’ networks, and even at 37K feet in the air while flying on a plane that had WiFi.

I started with an account with Freenet6, which allowed me to build a system that provides for a /56 subnet for IPv6, which could provide up to 256 /64 IPv6 subnets. I generally design breaking the /56 into 16 /60s and then each /60 provides 16 /64s. This lets me build multiple networks, and I can then enable different IPv6 routing protocols to really test my configs. A most excellent resource specifically covering IPv6 addressing topics soon to be published is “IPv6 Address Planning” by Tom Coffeen by O’Reilly. Another great resource is Rick Graziani’s book “IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6” by Cisco Press which covers not only IPv6 basics but routing in an IPv6 network as well, with a focus on Cisco IOS.

So far I’ve made it sound easy to throw all this stuff together in a pot, stir it around a bit, and presto-changeo you have a way-cool IPv6 lab. Unfortunately that is not exactly the case. It does take a bit of tweaking and modifying to make the base system work. Initially you download all the software you need and also sign up for your Freenet6 account. Then you install VirtualBox and create a VyOS virtual machine (VM). After getting the VyOS VM going, the real fun begins. You must do some updates to the Debian base which VyOS runs on and then install the freenet6 (called gogo6) client software. After getting that all going, there are a few tweaks to the gogo6 main configuration file for account info, etc., and to the router config file gogo6 calls within VyOS. It’s a bit more complicated than I have time or space to cover here. After all this, you can then configure one or more client VMs to play with.

Here is what the IPv6 Lab system could look like:

Network Diagram Screenshot

After configuring the system, I have an IPv6 tunnel up and running, and a Linux client on a different IPv6 subnet, on an IPv4 only connection to the Internet, all in VirtualBox:

VB VyOS Screenshot

If you want to learn more about how you can set up your own IPv6 home lab, I will be facilitating two half-day hands-on workshops on this project at the upcoming 2014 North American IPv6 Summit on September 23-25 in Denver Colorado. There is still time to register for the workshop and/or the IPv6 Summit.


Jeff Carrell

Jeffrey L. Carrell is Network Consultant at Network Conversions. Jeff is a frequent industry speaker, freelance writer, blogger, IPv6 Forum Certified Trainer, network instructor and course developer to major networking manufacturers, and technical lead and co-author on 2 books: Guide to TCP/IP 4th Edition (contributing IPv6 content) and Fundamentals of Communications and Networking 2nd Edition. Jeff focus’s on IPv6 interoperability, and delivers lectures and IPv6 hands-on labs at technical conferences worldwide. As an IPv6 Forum Certified IPv6 Trainer, Jeff offers IPv6 Forum Silver and Gold Certified courses, customized IPv6 training courses, is an IPv6 Instructor for HP Education Services for their IPv6 Foundations course, and an IPv6 Instructor for Nephos6 for their IPv6 Foundations course. Jeff is a featured IPv6 instructor for the gogoNET online community, offering webinars and online workshops on IPv6 technologies via the gogoTRAINING initiative. Jeff is also a “Protocol Analysis Workshop” facilitator for Riverbed. Jeff has been involved in the computer industry for 35 years and has concentrated his endeavors in the internetworking portion of the industry for over 28 of those years. Jeff actively participates on IPv6 topics on twitter @JeffCarrell_v6.


IANA Oversight Transition Q&A

By Cathy Handley, Executive Director of Government Affairs & Public Policy, ARIN

IANA_bill_Stewardship-03There is a lot of confusion about the IANA oversight transition,  so we pulled together this Q&A to answer your questions about what is really happening. As we get ready to discuss this topic as a community at ARIN 34, we want to make sure you have a clear understanding of the issues.

Is the US government giving the Internet away?

No, the intention has always been to transfer the oversight of the Internet Assigned Names and Numbers (IANA) functions away from the U.S. government to the global community.

Exactly what was proposed in the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) 14 March announcement?

The NTIA intends to transfer the role of oversight of the IANA functions it currently performs to the global multistakeholder Internet community.

What does it mean, NTIA has “oversight” of the IANA functions?

The role of NTIA is to ensure that ICANN meets the obligations as outlined in the IANA functions contract. Visit this page for background on the IANA functions role.

Where can I find the IANA Functions Contract?

The full text of the contract is available on the NRO website.

Will ICANN continue to perform the IANA functions after the transition?

Yes, ICANN will continue to perform the operational role associated with the IANA functions; it is only the IANA oversight role of NTIA that is changing.

What is the role today of NTIA in addressing?

Today NTIA has a procedural oversight role in the performance of the IANA functions.  For example, the RIRs might expect the NTIA to review IANA’s performance if there was an issue with how IANA was managing the allocation of resources to the RIRs. According to the NTIA, its role is largely symbolic; it is not an operational role.

Why is ICANN in charge of the process?

ICANN is not in charge of the transition process.  As the entity that performs the IANA functions, ICANN was asked to facilitate the process. It is now in the hands of the IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG). The NTIA will determine if the proposal being developed by the ICG is acceptable.

What is the IANA Stewardship Transition Coordination Group (ICG)?

As defined by the ICG Charter: The ICG acts as a liaison to the all interested parties including those with direct operational or service relationship with IANA, namely names, numbers and protocol parameters.  The ICG will solicit proposals from the operational or service communities in addition to the broader community.  The ICG will then assess the outputs of the three operational communities for compatibility and interoperability.  Following the assessment, the ICG will assemble a proposal for the transition.

Is ARIN participating in the process?

ARIN is participating through the Number Resource Organization (NRO) and NRO Number Council with three representatives as members of the ICG. The NRO will put forth a proposal based on the inputs of all five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs).

ARIN will be contributing its community input following the ARIN 34 meeting this fall.

How can I get involved or stay informed throughout the transition process?

There will be an email consultation that will begin before and continue after the ARIN 34 meeting.  There will also be a session on 9 October during the ARIN 34 meeting where we will be accepting feedback either in person or via remote participation.

You can also follow the work of the Coordination Group and other transition process news.

Is there anything I need to do?

The best thing to do is to stay informed.  You can follow the process through the both the ICANN and Team ARIN websites.   In addition there will be open discussions at the ARIN 34 meeting in Baltimore, and you can contribute your opinions during the consultation.

What happens if agreement is not reach by September 2015?

Nothing.  The current IANA functions contract has the possibility of two, two-year extensions. The two, two-year extensions afford the community time to continue to discuss to come to an agreement.

When will this actual transition occur?

Once an agreement has been reached on the new oversight mechanism, the actual transition process will begin.

Who will have oversight after NTIA?

In general, the global multistakeholder community, the specifics of which are being determined through the consultation process.

When the oversight of IANA changes, who will be in charge of Internet number resource global policies and how could this affect global policy?

The RIR communities will continue to be responsible for initiating and developing global policies. Global policy will not be affected by a change in who has oversight responsibility for the IANA functions.

Will a change in IANA oversight impact how IP addresses are allocated?

No. The ARIN community will continue to develop the policies under which ARIN allocates Internet number resources.



Internet Governance Forum 2014 in Istanbul, Turkey

By Jennifer Bly, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator, ARIN

Internet Governance Forum IGF 2014Last week I had the privilege of attending the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Istanbul, Turkey to support the Number Resource Organization (NRO) on behalf of ARIN.  More than 2,300 people convened in Istanbul, Turkey plus another 1,100 tuned in online to discuss Internet Governance matters with the theme “Connecting Continents for Enhanced Multistakeholder Internet Governance.” This being the first IGF I’ve attended in person, I have a few observations I’d like to share with you.

The IGF brings together varied viewpoints from around the world and from many cross sections of the Internet community; there were stakeholders representing development, regulatory, technical, economic, social, and civil society communities.  These individuals, many experts in their respective fields, meet at the IGF to share and represent their interests, and this leads to many rich discussions.

Anyone who attends an IGF will quickly notice the emphasis that is placed on the importance of multistakeholderism throughout the forum.  By the end of week there wasn’t an attendee who hadn’t used the word “multistakeholder” at least 15 times. Yet no matter how overused the term, the concept of a multistakeholder approach to Internet governance where everyone can participate on equal footing, remains a highly valued component.

IGF 2014 Opening Ceremony

There are a few fundamental issues people seem to amicably agree on—those being the goal of working toward a better Internet, and generally, a more stable and robust Internet.  Indeed, Vint Cerf rounded out the opening ceremony with the acknowledgement that we are all committed to a better and evolving Internet that will serve all of our needs. You can view his speech on YouTube. And furthermore, you view many IGF sessions from last week on the IGF’s YouTube Page.

ARIN participated in IGF through the Number Resource Organization (NRO) as we have for each and every IGF to date.  The NRO had a booth in the IGF village where we spoke to delegates about all of kinds of topics from how to get involved in the IANA oversight transition process to why deploying IPv6 is important. The NRO had representatives from each of the five Regional Internet Registries to speak with attendees from all over the world.   The NRO also had individuals participate in many sessions of importance to the RIR communities on everything from potential impacts of carrier grade network address translation to the evolution of Internet governance ecosystem.  The NRO also kicked off @theNRO twitter handle with live tweets through which you can scroll back to catch some of the highlights from many #IGF2014 sessions.

Part of IGF is meeting many individuals who are passionate about making the Internet a better place. One such person is Deirdre Williams, an Internet end user in Saint Lucia, West Indies, who described one of her main takeaways from IGF as being:

The IGF is a place where the human considerations can be injected back into the tech. For me the most important consideration is balance – human beings respond badly to absolutes. The discussion has a tendency to fragment during the year; the IGF provides an opportunity to bring all the different perspectives back together again into the same space.

Internet Governance Forum Workshop 2014

It’s amazing how people can come together to have constructive discussions on such a pressing topic like how the Internet will be managed in the years to come. For an overview of what happened at the 2014 IGF, a draft Chair’s Summary of the 9th IGF is available. Next year the IGF will be hosted by Brazil, in João Pessoa, Paraíba from 10-13 November 2015.  Until then, you have lots of time to speak with your respective RIR to learn more about the opportunities you have to get engaged in Internet Governance dialogue.  If you reside in the ARIN region, here’s one place where you can get started. It seems to me, the technical community in particular has done a lot of work to educate, advise, and be available for conversations about the Internet technology they build and maintain.  Yet, there always remains a need for more technically-skilled individuals to join in these conversations, build relationships, and provide expertise on issues vital to making Internet technologies actually work.

What do terms like multistakeholderism, Internet governance, and technical community really mean?

Reflecting on the Internet Governance Forum, Suzanne Woolf explains how difficult it can be to come to a common understanding about the terminology used at the IGF and her impressions as a first-time attendee last year.

Guest blog post by Suzanne Woolf

Last year I went to my first Internet Governance Forum in Bali, Indonesia.  I was involved in several workshops and discussions about “the role of the technical community in Internet governance,” including the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) and Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF); the role of governments; questions of increasing access to communications resources for the next billion users; and reactions to “pervasive monitoring” of Internet communications by US and other intelligence agencies.

I’ve been involved with “Internet policy” for many years now, as a member of ARIN’s AC, on various ICANN Advisory Committees, and as a liaison to the ICANN Board of Directors…which turned out to be a useful perspective, but by no means complete!

Words, Words, Words

For the perspective of someone who is new to the IGF, but familiar with “Internet governance” from experience of other venues, it was striking how much confusion there seems to be about many of the key terms thrown around. 

Multistakeholderism.  It’s easy for a techie to listen to 20 minutes of IGF workshops and speeches and conclude the term itself doesn’t actually mean anything. But a few days later I’d concluded it actually means too many things. I think there’s already a partial shared definition, though, in what it *isn’t*. It’s sometimes hard to tell what “multistakeholderism” means, but it does seem to be based on the idea that “Decisions aren’t only made by governments and implemented in treaties.” The problem then becomes figuring out who *does* make decisions, organized by what processes, so the decisions make sense and don’t just represent one or a few interests.

Internet Governance.  “Internet governance” is itself another slippery term. It’s not just about what the RIRs and ICANN do, it also includes topics like spam and child protection online and intellectual property protection and so on. The things RIRs and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) and the IETF oversee are “critical Internet resources” and considered really important, but the technical and operational details of how the Internet actually works are only a small part of what people talk about as “Internet governance”. This by itself can be disorienting for an engineer!

Technical Community.  Another thing that jumped out at me was the phrase: “technical community”. This is another term that’s hard to define in the IGF context. It doesn’t mean there what it means to the ARIN community, where people are “technical” if their primary knowledge/skills/work involves things like routers and peering. In the IGF context, people and roles are defined from astarting point of “some kind of stakeholder, not government”. The definition of “technical community” is lots broader than what we’re used to, and lots less clear.  It’s distinguished from “government,” “business,” and “civil society,” and it includes not only people whose background is technology and engineering, but anyone from an organization oriented on technology, from large ISPs and software companies to the RIRs, the Internet Society (ISOC), and World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). These categories can overlap, too.

Overall Impressions

Techies who step into the IGF, and meetings like it, should be prepared to be a little disoriented, but willing to listen and persist. IGF participants are people of good will and genuine concern for the future of the Internet. They don’t entirely agree on how to go about it, but they want a future that’s not owned only by governments or special interests, and they’re willing to work for it. The rhetoric can be confusing and the outcomes hard to define, but there’s a lot of positive energy and some real insight to be found as well. And the “technical community” has our own contribution to make, if we’re willing to engage.

I think RIR members should know that the Number Resource Organization (NRO) is doing very good work in just showing up, being visible in venues like IGF, and answering questions about the mysteries of how the net really works and the nature of “critical Internet resources” like IP addresses. If we don’t explain those things to “the other stakeholders,” its going to be even more difficult to make progress on “Internet governance” issues.


Suzanne WoolfSuzanne Woolf has extensive experience in internet infrastructure technology and management, particularly DNS and routing, and technical policy for names and addresses, including two terms on ARIN’s Advisory Council. She currently serves as co-chair of the DNSOP working group in the IETF and liaison from the Root Server System Advisory Committee to the ICANN Board of Directors. She’s a freelance consultant in Internet infrastructure and policy, based in the northeastern US.




For more information about the NRO’s participation in this year’s Internet Governance Forum, visit the NRO website.


Live Beyond Layer 3

Based on his time at CANTO, Owen DeLong, ARIN Advisory Council member & Senior Backbone Engineer at Black Lotus, encourages fellow Internet technologists to take the time to field questions from senior management and government officials.

Guest Blog Post by Owen DeLong 

I’m a layer three guy, which means that I am a network guy, specifically an Internet guy. I work on routers and connect big networks to other big networks to try and make the Internet work better. For a long time, I, and many people like me have tried very hard to ignore what we call layers 8/9/10 (the financial, administrative, and governmental entities involved with the Internet).  Or worse, sometimes we have been known to sneer at them as “damage to be routed around”. I know that attitude still persists among some, but it really fails to take in the whole story.

ARIN at CANTO 2014

For the last several years, I’ve had the opportunity to work with ARIN doing outreach in the Caribbean at the annual CANTO conference and exhibition. While there are lots of layer 1/2/3 (fiberoptics, switches, routers, etc.) products on display, but the reality is that most of this show is for senior management and government officials. This year, the opening ceremony included speeches from the secretary general of the ITU and the prime minister of the Bahamas (where the meeting was held). There was no shortage of senior government officials.

There are several reasons that CANTO attracts so many senior executives and government officials. First, the Caribbean has traditionally had a number of state-run and/or state-owned telecommunications services or monopoly telecommunications services that were licensed by the state(s). That’s been changing, but slowly. CANTO has always been a forum where those groups and other industry representatives can come together to learn about new technologies, see what is happening in other parts of the region, and talk about issues that are unique to the region and/or require coordination among various countries in the region. In recent years, it has come to include not only telecom, but all of ICT and has also served as a forum to help move away from monopoly telecommunications towards more deregulated and diverse provider choices.

The Internet has become important enough that we layer 1/2/3 folks can no longer pretend government isn’t relevant, nor can we pretend that government won’t notice us and will continue to leave us alone. It’s critical that we increase our awareness about how things work in the wider world and start educating regulators and senior management in ways that will allow them to do their jobs without damaging what we’ve built. As nice as it is to live in layer 3 without caring what’s above or below, strict layering simply doesn’t work with human relationships. In the end, networks are about connecting people, and that’s a process that transcends all layers.

When a manager or a regulator approaches you and starts asking questions you don’t think are worth your time, remember, your answers are going to shape how they decide many things that may affect your future. Answer wisely and carefully. Be available for follow-ups. Be courteous, and this experiment that escaped from the laboratory might just be able to remain the most awesome tool ever developed for democratizing communications.


Sign Your DNS Zones

By Pete Toscano, Network Operations Manager, ARIN


Last month we signed ARIN’s forward DNS zone as part of our commitment to Domain Name System Security (DNSSEC).  That means we completed the process that essentially allows resolvers to verify the arin.net information that they receive from ARIN’s nameservers, and it allows users to have a higher degree of confidence that when they go to https://www.arin.net or act on any other information under arin.net that they are communicating with the host they expect.

We went through the process of signing ARIN’s forward DNS zones to do our part to contribute to a valuable and trustworthy Internet.  The process can be complex, but it’s worth it.

Why is signing your DNS important?

Every time you type in a web address (with letters) it corresponds to a set of numbers.  That is one use of the Domain Name System, or DNS for short.  Think of DNS as an inverted tree with many branches.  The root zone is at the top and out from it comes other zones through which a chain of authority flows. DNSSEC adds another layer of security to this tree by allowing users to validate that the DNS records come from the correct source.

DNSSEC makes the name tree more reliable for the whole Internet.  Not only can resolvers validate the data they’re getting from nameservers with signed DNS zones, but users can have a higher degree of confidence that when they go to a web site under a signed domain they’re actually on the correct web site and not some imposter’s phishing site.  Basically, DNSSEC validates that you received information from the source and not from a third party who could change the information in a malicious way.

Implementation Considerations

DNS records for arin.netMake sure your domain name registrar supports DNSSEC.  In ARIN’s case, we needed to go through the process of changing registrars so we could employ this important functionality.  Changing registrars can be a slow process, so be sure to include that in your timeline.  If you want to find a registrar that supports DNSSEC, check out this list of registrars compiled by ICANN that are DNSSEC friendly.

Depending on how you manage DNS now, your workflow process may need to be reengineered to some degree, especially when it comes to reporting DS record changes or additions to your registrar.  This can be done manually, but you may want to consider automated signing solutions.  There are both software and hardware-based options.  Larger installations may want to consider a hardware solution for the DNS signing, but it comes down to your budget and tolerance for added complexity. ISOC’s Deploy 360 has more information on deploying DNSSEC.  Once you are setup, you can use tools like Sandia National Laboratories’ DNSviz and Versign Labs’ DNSSEC debugger to ensure you have DNSSEC setup correctly.

We’re doing our part to make the Internet more secure, and you should too! We encourage all members of the Internet community to implement DNSSEC for their own forward and reverse zones to help secure the Domain Name System as the Internet continues to grow and evolve.


Why Is the Transition To IPv6 Taking So Long?

IPv6 is an essential technology if the Internet is to grow, but adoption has been slow. Graeme Caldwell of Interworx takes a look at why organizations are holding back on IPv6.

Guest blog post by Graeme Caldwell 

We stand on the cusp of an explosion in the number of Internet-connected devices. The mobile revolution was just the beginning. Combined, the burgeoning wearables market and the Internet of Things will potentially create billions of new connected devices over the next few years. Every device will need an IP address and there are far too few available addresses within the IPv4 system to handle the sheer quantity of connections. It’s a problem that’s been predicted and solved for many years, in theory at least. But IPv6 is being adopted at a glacially slow pace.

The reasons for the gradual adoption are simple to understand. It’s expensive. The Internet is made up of tens of millions of servers, routers, and switches that were designed to work with IPv4. Upgrading that infrastructure entails a significant capital investment. As things stand, workarounds like NAT take some of the pressure off — but they are a temporary band-aid solution. In the long-term, transition to IPv6 will have to happen, but, given the level of the required investment, there’s not a compelling business argument to make the transition immediately.

To get the full benefit of IPv6, a significant proportion of the net’s infrastructure has to support it, and, with the exception of a few organizations, many don’t want to invest in infrastructure upgrades that don’t have any immediate benefit.

When they were developing IPv6, the Internet Engineering Task Force decided that, in order to implement new features in IPv6, the protocol would not be backward compatible with IPv4. IPv6 native devices are not capable of straightforwardly communicating with IPv4 devices. That makes incremental updating of systems difficult, because workarounds have to be put in place to ensure that legacy hardware and newer IPv6 hardware have a way of talking to each other — most IPv4 hardware will never be updated.

According to Leslie Daigle, Former Chief Internet Technology Officer for the Internet Society, “The lack of real backwards compatibility for IPv4 was the single critical failure. There were reasons at the time for doing that. But the reality is that nobody wants to go to IPv6 unless they think their friends are doing it, too.”

Forward thinking software companies have already included the necessary functionality to handle IPv6 in their products. At InterWorx, we could have left implementing IPv6 support until we absolutely had to, but the benefits of the transition for us and our users in the web hosting industry were undeniable. We wanted to give clients the option of using IPv6 so they can begin to prepare for the inevitable move and implement IPv6 systems. InterWorx includes a full suite of IPv6 management tools, including IPv6 pools management, IPv6 clustering, and diagnostic tools.

In a Feburary 2014 report, Google revealed that their IPv6 traffic had hit 3 percent and it’s currently at about 4 percent. That seems unimpressive, but it’s a sign that adoption rates are accelerating — the move from 2 percent to 3 percent took only 5 months and from 3 percent to 4 percent even less time. Under pressure from the proliferation of connected devices, we can expect to see organizations adopting IPv6 ever more quickly.


GraemeGraeme works as an inbound marketer for InterWorx, a revolutionary web hosting control panel for hosts who need scalability and reliability. Follow InterWorx on Twitter at @interworx, Like them on Facebook and check out their blog.


Caribbean Internet Governance Forum (CIGF) Celebrates 10 Years

CTU Telecommunications Specialist, Nigel Cassimire, shares what happened at this year’s Caribbean Internet Governance forum.

Guest blog post by Nigel Cassimire, Telecommunications Specialist, CTU

Caribbean IGFThe 10th edition of the Caribbean Internet Governance Forum (CIGF) was held at the Atlantis, Paradise Island Resort in The Bahamas from 6th to 8th August 2014. The CIGF is a regional, multi-stakeholder forum which was initiated by the Caribbean Telecommunications Union (CTU) and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat in 2005 in order to coordinate a regional approach to Internet Governance issues for the final session of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis that year.

The CIGF has since been convened annually by the CTU and lays claim to being the first such regional forum in the world, all others having been convened after the initial global Internet Governance Forum in 2006. The primary product of the work of the CIGF has been the formulation of a Caribbean Internet Governance Policy Framework issued in 2009, and updated in 2013, which:

  • Articulates a vision, mission and guiding principles for Internet Governance (IG) in the Caribbean
  • Identifies current priority areas in IG of greatest relevance to the Caribbean
  • Offers policy recommendations in such priority areas for the attention of all stakeholders

The theme of the 10th CIGF was “Building National Capacity for Global Influence” and specific objectives addressed in the agenda were to:

  • Build regional capacity in the area of ccTLD operation and administration
  • Review and update the Caribbean Internet Governance Framework V 2.0
  • Facilitate open discussion on the Net Mundial Outcomes, and the proposed NTIA transition.
  • Explore and spread awareness on Opportunities for Caribbean Growth through the Internet Economy
  • Develop a mechanism to ensure effective Caribbean representation at Global Internet Governance Fora.

There were over 40 registered participants representing Caribbean stakeholders in government, operating companies and other private sector, academia, civil society and, in particular, Caribbean ccTLDs for whom dedicated content had been included on the agenda. ICANN, ARIN, LACNIC, ISOC and Google all provided financial support as well as valuable agenda content. Agenda information as well as presentation slides are archived on the CTU’s event web page.

The 10th CIGF successfully addressed its objectives through presentations and several vibrant discussion sessions and, when necessary, focussed review of the policy framework document. Suggested refinements were identified for subsequent wider circulation and comment. This is the first step in the current revision cycle towards a third revision of the document for likely issuance in 2016.

Most importantly, the CTU Secretary General, Ms. Bernadette Lewis proposed an approach for fostering capacity building in IG at the national level in order to enhance Caribbean participation and influence globally in IG, consistent with the 2014 theme. This approach is based on mobilising relevant ICT resources and expertise in the Caribbean not currently focussed on IG e.g. computer societies, IT professional associations and the like.

The CTU will continue to foster multi-stakeholder collaboration in the Caribbean region on Internet issues and in particular through the medium of the CIGF. More deliberate efforts will also be taken in the near future to coordinate the work of the CIGF with the wider regional LACIGF and the global IGF. Please plan to attend the 11th CIGF that will be held in Suriname at a date to be fixed in 2015.


Nigel CassimireNigel Cassimire has been serving as a Telecommunications Specialist at Caribbean Telecommunications Union since July 2005, when he started independent consultancy. The CTU is a regional organisation with responsibility for the development of ICT policy within the Caribbean region. Its members are drawn from Caribbean Governments, private sector and civil society organisations. Nigel has over 30 years of experience in telecommunication industry. He has extensive knowledge in telecommunications technologies and services and is now working in telecommunications policy development at the Caribbean Telecommunications Union Secretariat.